Архитектурное наследство №55: Русский


Viatchanina T.N.
Russian "Early Christian” Church Architecture in the Context of Religious Mental Models in Kiev Rus.

The paper deals with ecclesiastic architecture of Kiev Rus in the light of its formation under the influence of certain features of the spiritual and religious mentality of the epoch, which is marked by the early stage of development of Christianity in Russia and the erection of its first churches. The author describes the emergence of new ideas and images referring to the "early Christian” stage of religious architecture, beginning with St. Vladimir (missionary and educational period), and their connection with the formation of national Orthodox mentality, traits of local religious feeling, as well as with the spiritual and social preferences of "newly-converted” Russia. Special attention is given to the church-building paradigm of the period, based on written sources and architectural studies. The latter concentrate on 11th-century cathedrals of St. Sophia in Kiev, Novgorod and Polotsk. New solutions are being offered regarding certain debated issues (for example, concerning the genesis of the architecture of the earliest Russian churches).

Margolina I.E.
The Architectural Enigma of the Kirillovski Church in Kiev.

The architecture and the frescoes of the Kiev Kirillovski Church, erected in the 12th century, have some peculiar features, which are not found anywhere else in Medieval Christian edifices. Of special interest is the design of the southern apse. The mysterious passage with stairs in the southern wall of the vestry, leading to the four-meter-high platform-balcony, was probably made following an order by Prince Vsevolod Olegovich, founder of the Kirillovski Church. Such an unusual compartment for the nobility, where the prince was supposed to be present during service, served as a sort of a pedestal, raising the person who financed the construction above the parishioners and the clergy.

Sedov Vl.V.
Tiles of the Church of St. George on the Vzvoz in Pskov and Zamoriye Gothic architecture.

The author studies glazed ceramic plates decorating the drum of the St. George’s Church on the Vzvoz, erected in 1494 in Pskov, and analyzes their design. Special attention is drawn to Pskov’s artistic connections with those lands where German brick Gothic was developing and to possible prototypes of these plates. Similar works were found in the town Wismar in two churches, constructed by the same master 30 years before the Pskov Church. The author stresses the fact that the lands connected with Pskov and Novgorod were called "Zamoriye” (beyond the sea) and suggests that this name may be used for the architecture of the cities, which influenced construction in North-Western Russia.

Salimov A.M.
Stone Constructions of the Second Half of the 15th – 16th Centuries in the Tver Otroch Monastery.

Otroch Monastery is one of the oldest religious houses in Tver. It was apparently founded in the 1260s. Later, probably in the late 13th century, the first stone church – the Cathedral of the Assumption - was built there. A new stage of the history of the monastery began in the second half of the 15th and 16th centuries, when the cathedral was rebuilt and some new stone buildings – a refectory, a kitchen and a bell-tower – were erected. Such large-scale stone construction made this monastery one of the most significant religious houses in early Rus’.

Bondarenko I.A.
More Facts about the Construction Program of the Cathedral of the Intercession on the Moat.

The author describes the two stages of erecting the cathedral, which was raised in fulfillment of a vow after the taking of Kazan, and had several altars. He further offers a hypothetic reconstruction of the lay-out of the first cathedral with the stone Trinity Church in the Middle and seven wooden side-chapels on the four corners and the three sides. The paper then gives an explanation why and how in the plan of the subsequent stone construction there emerged a composition of nine altars, with an "excess” altar added. The author holds the opinion that this was not a conscious alteration of the initial order on the part of the masons with the purpose of achieving centric symmetry, but a certain miscalculation, connected with transforming the Intercession Church from a side-chapel-type building into a central oriented structure, i.e. into a cathedral.

Khodakovski E.V., Kurina N.N.
St. Nicholas’ Church in the Village Purnema and 17th-18th-century Wooden Church Architecture of the White Sea Region.

The paper is dedicated to St. Nicholas’ Church in the Village Purnema on the White Sea, which is traditionally believed to appear in 1618. The authors of the work suggest that the church has been built earlier. This theory is based, first, on the study of a little-known deed written by Hegumen Irinarkh of the Solovetski Monastery, from which one can conclude that this building may have been raised not later than 1613, and most probably – in the very beginning of the 17th century or even in the late 16th century. Second, a similar configuration of the covering of the altar area of the St. Nicholas’ Church in Purnema and the St. Nicholas’ Church in the Village Shuyeretskoye (1595) also gives some ground for believing that both constructions appeared soon one after another. Finally, certain typological correspondences with the Assumption Church in the Village Kuritsko (1595) allows us to consider the date of the appearance of the Purnema church as late 16th century.

Bode A.B.
Presentation-St. Michael’s Church in the Former Village Krasnaya Liaga. New Facts regarding its History and Architecture.

The paper presents the results of historical and architectural research concerning the Presentation-St. Michael’s Church in Krasnaya Liaga – one of the most outstanding and oldest wooden constructions of the Kargopol region. The author describes the various stages of its erection, focusing attention on the previously unknown traces of different architectural elements, which are now lost. This sheds new light on the history of the building. The design of the Presentation-St. Michael’s Church is compared with other similar constructions of the Onega lands.

Maciel Sanches L.K.
Churches of the Arkhangelsk School

The object of the presented research is a definition of style of the architecture of Arkhangelsk and surrounding territories in the XVIII c. The number of stone churches built in this predominantly wood-using region was never high, but only very few remain after years of Soviet cultural terror. The first churches of Arkhangelsk belong to "The Kholmogory School” (of a diocese centre), created under the patronage of archbishop Athanasios (1682–1702). This archaic tradition survived in the countryside monuments till the 1730th. A new "Arkhangelsk City” architectural school was created with the construction of the Trinity (Troitskiy) Cathedral (1709–1743) in the new diocese capital, Arkhangelsk. I suggest it was built by masons from Velikiy Ustig ("the Great Ustiug”), actual economic and cultural center of the immense territories of the North and East of Russia, from the White Sea to Baykal. New approaches were soon adopted by the constructors of some elegant churches alongside Dvina riverfront, which appear in 1740th – 1760th after the completion of the cathedral. These churches belong to the late phase of the Naryshkin Style, distinctive for some remote regions and cities such as Viatka, Tobolsk, Irkutsk, etc. This school however never developed a late Baroque style: sparse sponsors and masters could not find either the means or abilities to create such flamboyant masterpieces as some 1770th–1790th churches in Totma, Viatka, Western Siberia and the Baykal region.

Shchenkova O.P., Shchenkov A.S.
Volkov’s City Estate and its Surroundings. Evolution of Kitai-Gorod Residential Construction in the 17th Century.

The authors look into the issue of the evolution of urban planning of one of the 17th-century Moscow blocks, situated in Kitai-Gorod. Basing their research on archive materials, they follow the changes in the sizes and configurations of city estates. The evolution of planning is connected with the change of owners and their status in terms of property and social standing. The lay-out of the estate of merchant Volkov, as it existed in the 1640s, is reconstructed, and the development of this and other neighboring grounds up to the end of the 17th century is studied.

Mazur L.D.
17th-century Fortifications of the City of Suzdal.

The paper is dedicated to the history, construction and architecture of the fortifications, protecting the kremlin and the posad of Suzdal, their state and evolution in the course of the 17th century. The author describes the positioning of the gate and other towers of both lines of defenses. Further information is given regarding the fortress’ water supply and the location of gunpowder storage.

M.I. Milchik, A.G. Noskova
Vologda Houses and their Grounds According to the 1711-1712 Census Book.

After the publication of the Vologda Census Book of 1711-1712 (2008), which contained information not only about the proprietors, their social rank, but also included the size of adjoining land and listed the constructions standing there, historians for the first time could get a statistically correct picture of an urban plan of an entire city in early Russia. At that time Vologda had 1810 estates. The number of constructions in each of them ranged from 1 to 55 (an average of around 6, the largest number being owned by foreigners and monasteries). These were residential and service buildings. The Census Book reflects the surprisingly wide variety of functions that they had. 21% of the estates had some cattle, 8% included manufacturing constructions. All of them were made of wood (there were only 9 brick edifices in the whole city). According to the Census Book, in Vologda, apart from agriculture, an important role was played by the manufacturing business – producing goods for the market. The city was a large commercial center, a fact further confirmed by a special building (merchant court) with market stalls and some 500 shops.

Kharlan A.V.
17th-and-18th–Century Fortifications of the Moscow State Situated in Present-Day Dnepropetrovsk: Novobogoroditskaya Fortress.

The paper is studying the Novobogoroditskaya Fortress – an early example of the art of fortification in the Moscow State of the 17th and 18th centuries, the remains of which are situated in the city Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine. Special attention is drawn to the location of its various elements and to the description of the architectural-planning features of the fortress’ ensemble.

Pishchulina V.V.
The Formation of the Traditional Space-Behavior of the Cossacks and Christian Church-Building in the Pre-Caucasus Region in the Late Medieval Period.

This work deals with the formation processes of the spatial behavior of early Cossacks, influenced by a specific Christian worldview, extreme living conditions, relations with nature and by a singular social structure. The resulting contamination of naturalistic paganism and various traits of Christian culture found its reflection in the distinctive forms of a mobile wooden Cossack church.

Ukhnaliov A.E.
Underground Constructions of Peter the Great’s Summer Palace.

This work describes the results of studying the tunnels of the sewer systems of Peter the Great’s Summer Palace in St. Petersburg, which appeared at the same time as the building itself. It was established that the sewerage was provided with flowing clean water from the fountain system of the garden. It would constantly enter the water-dispensing tank at the kitchen, and the surplus was poured into the sewer collector. The latter, adjoining the kitchen, weakened the foundation. After some cracks appeared on the façade this area of the system was filled up. An explanation is offered regarding the function of a hatch, found in the so-called Peter’s Study.

Gusarova E.V.
The Summer Palace of Peter the Great in Astrakhan (Preliminary Notes).

Certain manuscripts, found by the author, such as a hydrographic draft of the time of Peter the Great and Astrakhan mid-18th-century plans, allow us to reconstruct the design of Peter the Great’s Summer Palace in this city, which has been previously unknown to historians of architecture. Turning to published original written sources, to the evidence, left by connoisseurs and local historians of the 19th and 20th centuries, as well as to little-known facts concerning Russian architecture of the last quarter of the 17th – first quarter of the 18th centuries, the author comes forward with her own interpretation of the discovered documents, suggesting who was the creator of Peter the Great’s Astrakhan Summer Palace and its possible Dutch prototype.

Ukhnaliov A.E.
The Kunstkamera Tower and its Traces in St. Petersburg Architecture.

The author analyzes the three projects of the St. Petersburg Kunstkamera Tower, created by G.-I. Mattarnovi, G. Chiaveri and by the astronomer J.N. Delisle, stressing the fact that if the lower tiers of the tower were constructed according to Mattarnovi’s original project, its upper part follows Delisle’s design. The Baroque idea of a façade with negative curvature of the walls or their wavy silhouette found its continuation in St. Petersburg architecture of the first half and the middle of the 18th century. The author insists that the design of the bell-tower of the St. Nicholas’ Cathedral, by S. Chevakinski, was directly influenced by the Kunstkamera Tower and through the former – also the bell-tower of St. Andrew’s Cathedral, by A. Wist. The bell-tower of the Church of the Holy Spirit on Bolshaya Okhta, which has not come down to us, is further described, its architecture being very close to that of the St. Nicholas’ bell-tower, which makes it possible to consider it as a work by S. Chevakinski.

Mikishatiyev M.N.
Architect Stasov. The Artistic Method of the Russian Empire Style Architect. Aspects of Form-Building.

V.P. Stasov is one of the most important masters of the Russian Empire Style. Studying several secular constructions, chosen among the numerous creations of the architect, which particularly express his individual artistic method, the author looks into the leading form-building principles characterizing this stage of the development of Russian architecture. Since they appeared in the early St. Petersburg period of Stasov’s career, the paper focuses on the 1810s and early 1820s. His individual artistic method is studied against the background of the works of other St. Petersburg architects – W. Hestey and L. Rusca. The outlined features of Stasov’s style can, in general, be traced in the following years, present in his palace and government office buildings, as well as churches.

Chanturiya Y.V.
Urban-Planning Ensemble of the Squares in the Center of Vitebsk in the 18th-first half of the 19th Centuries.

Vitebsk initially had a typical early Russian hierarchic layout, as well as a one-street, cross and fan-arched branch-like types of irregular urban-planning structures. Its Classicist reconstruction, leading to an appearance of a new public center, was a major event in terms of town-planning. The ensemble of the squares was made in three stages and was based on the following ideas, supplementing the well-known principles of the style: conformity of the sizes of the elements of construction or the space; modularity of volumes and spaces, doubling and trebling in the layout composition; regulating the Medieval plan by turning to a repetition of geometrical figures; similarity of compositional schemes of separate elements of the ensemble; organization in accordance with various guidelines of primary points of view, producing a visual effect, etc.

Tsariova S.M.
Sculptural Décor of the Muraviov-Apostol Estate in Staraya Basmannaya Street in Moscow.

The author of the work describes the figurative sculptural décor of a house in Staraya Basmannaya Street, Moscow, as an example of the architectural adornment of a number of buildings of the late 18th-early 19th centuries. It was done, apparently, in the workshop of master Campioni, which specialized in handling marble. In this case we can observe a design, which was typical for many houses of the period: Cupids usually embellished "official” bedrooms; "sofa” rooms and sitting-rooms were adorned with images of playing cupids or of their adventures; dance halls had dancing female figures. At the same time in each house there was a specific group of subjects. Here, in the "dessus de porte” relief of the hall we can identify "A Woman Selling Cupids”, known from an engraving after an ancient fresco; and a relief inspired by an engraving from the original of Angelica Kauffmann "Hector Reproaching Paris”. The subject could also reflect events from the lives of the proprietors or historical events of the time.

Zelentsova T.S., Pak T.N.
Gus-Khrustalny. Regarding the Evolution of the Architecture of Russian Industrial Communities.

The paper is dedicated to an insufficiently explored field - the history and the architecture of industrial communities in Russia, as well as to the history of building conducted by local entrepreneurs in the 19th century. Basing their research on a large number of facts, the authors describe the construction work that took place in Gus-Khrustalny – one of the leading Russian glass-making centers that developed into a large industrial complex. The paper focuses on some little-knows sides of 19th-century construction work. New facts about the life of architect, engineer and inventor Anton Ivanovich Gerard are being included. The authors also draw attention to the role of the Russian Technical Society in the country’s building activity.

Samigulov G.Kh.
Urban Planning and Construction Reality of the Southern Trans-Ural Towns of the Late 18th – 19th Centuries in Russia.

The paper looks into the development of urban planning in the provinces in the 18th and 19th centuries, focusing on the South-Eastern outlying regions of the Russian Empire, as well as into the problems arising from the fact that the plans were made not by professional architects, but by local land surveyors. The author describes the differences between the planned structures of a "civilian” town and a fortress, stressing certain factors that influenced the carrying out of the projects. Chelyabinsk of the 18th and 19th centuries, its layouts and their realization, become the center of this research. The planned construction work regarding Troitsk is also mentioned. The author emphasizes the universal problems concerning plans and end results in the 19th century.

Kirikov B.M.
The Building of the Tenishev College in St. Petersburg. Beginnings of the Rationalistic Trend in the Modernist Style.

The paper describes the building of the Tenishev College, erected in the early St. Petersburg Modernist Style. The author of the project, who also conducted the construction – R.A. Berzen – was following the order of Prince V.N. Teneshev, who financed the work. The latter proposed to combine two functions: educational and aesthetic. The design of the college is based on rationalistic principles. While the main façade represents a compromise variant of the new style, the building inside the college block is one of the first examples of innovative functional architecture.

Nashchokina M.V.
N.L. Shabelskaya’s Chapel in Nice and Church Architecture of A.V. Shchusev

The Russian section of the Caucade Cemetery in Nice became known in Russia as early as the 1900s, owing to the chapel placed over the tomb of N.L. Shabelskaya, a famous collector of Russian decorative and applied folk art. The building was created by A.V. Shchusev, then a young graduate of the Academy of Arts. It is one of the first projects in the Neo-Russian style carried out by A.V. Shchusev, a style of which he later became one of the most distinguished representatives. Its forms echo some previously almost completely ignored motives of Old Rus, stylizing them in a totally different manner. For the first time the composition here is based on designs that became central for the architect’s future work, determining the style of the Cathedral of the Marfo-Mariinski Convent, the church in Kharitonenko’s Nataliyevka Estate (1908-1912), the religious house in Ovruch (1909) and others.

Sliozkin A.V.
Early Works by V.A. Pokrovski (Church of the Shlisselburg Gunpowder Works, Project of the Church in Kashin) and their Place in Religious Architecture of the Neo-Russian Style.

The paper is devoted to the two early creations of V.A. Pokrovski, leader of the Neo-Russian Style: Church of Sts. Peter and Paul at the Shlisselburg Gunpowder Works (constructed in 1907, now lost) and the project of the Kashin Church (1904, together with O.R. Munts). Just like the church in Parkhomovka, to which a separate paper is dedicated, these edifices, having in a "concentrated” form a number of special features that were later used by the architect’s followers, were very important for the iconography of Neo-Russian church architecture. Since such talented masters as N.V. Vasiliyev, A.P. Aplaksin, G.D. Grimm, D.A. Kryzhanovski were among Pokrovski’s followers, we can view these projects as a significant landmark. The compositions, forms and details that he invented fitted well into the aesthetic systems of these architects. This gives us grounds to speak about a separate "northern line” in Neo-Russian ecclesiastic architecture.

Pechionkin I.E., Saigina L.V.
Moscow Architect N.S. Kurdiukov: a Portrait with his Epoch in the Background.

The essay is devoted to the life and works of one of the most famous Moscow architects of the early 20th century – Nikolai Kurdiukov (1868 – ca. 1924). He is well-known as the creator of a number of buildings in Moscow and in the region around it, such as the home for artists’ widows in Lavrushinski Lane (a splendid example of the Neo-Russian style), as well as apartment houses in Miasnitskaya Street, which became one of the first Moscow constructions that numbered more than 10 floors. Kurdiukov’s projects were regularly awarded by juries of architectural competitions. However, his professional activities were not just limited by building projects. He taught at several places, including the College of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture (UZhVZ) and the Stroganov College. He was also an active member of the Moscow Archaeological and the Moscow Architectural Societies, was involved in popularizing the history of architecture, becoming the first translator of Auguste Choisy’s famous work.

Nashchokina M.V.
The Lubenkino Estate – a Little-Known Work of I.V. Zholtovski

The paper describes a country estate ensemble, created by I.V. Zholtovski in the Tver Government on Lake Udomlia. Rare photos from a private archive of architect A. Skokan allow us to analyze this work and to come up with certain historical-architectural analogies with the style of Palladio and classical edifices of Ancient Rome. The author also looks into the evolution of the estate and its present condition.

Belintseva I.V.
School Architecture of the Kaliningrad Region.

The majority of presently working schools of the Kaliningrad Region occupy buildings, which were raised in the late 19th – first half of the 20th century, when this territory was a German province named Eastern Prussia. Many schools of the German period were in 2000-2010 included into the cultural heritage register, but until now were little studied by art historians. Their design reflected the changes in European architecture of the late 19th – first half of the 20th centuries and deserves special attention. These constructions were not only well fit for educational purposes, but also reflected the specific artistic tastes, characteristic of Eastern Prussian architecture of the time. In search of their "own” identity local masters, who created these schools, turned to the traditions of Medieval brick Gothic, peasant-house building, interpreting them in accordance with the dominant styles of the epoch – Jugendstil, Bauhaus and Art Deco.

A.G. Vaitens
St. Petersburg Architect Lev Alexandrovich Iliin: his Life and the City.

The paper studies the biography and the activities in various fields of Lev Iliin, St. Petersburg architect and urban-planner, beginning with the 1910s and into the post-revolutionary decades. Special focus is made on his 1920s urban-planning projects and on the General Plans of Development of Leningrad in the 1930s. Further attention is drawn to the evolution of his views on different ways of development of Petrograd-Leningrad in the 1920s-1930s, reflected in his theoretical works regarding these issues. An attempt is being made to outline Iliin’s role in the history of domestic urban-planning in the 1920s and 1930s.

Kosenkova Y.L.
District Planning in the USSR. The Experience of the 1920s and 1930s.

This work studies the process of establishing in the Soviet Union, in the 1920s and 1930s, such a field of urban-planning as district planning. That sphere was always regarded as a one that had the utmost national importance, but, according to expert opinion, is still in an unsatisfactory state today. The author focuses on economical, methodological, ideological, organizational and other factors, the combination of which determined the setbacks in district planning in the pre-war period. The paper describes the main professional approaches towards the development of district planning in the USSR, which were formed within the context of universal tendencies of the 1920s, and their gradual disappearance under the influence of the process of Soviet industrialization.

Konysheva E.V.
“Workers’ Towns” of the Ural Industrial Plants of the late 1920s – early 1930s: Transformation of Planning Principles.

The paper analyzes the projects of workers’ communities and of the sotsgorod (socialist towns) of the late 1920s – early 1930s in the Ural region, drawing the principal attention to their planning transformation. The author describes the evolution of planning principles, both connected with the town in general and with its structural elements. The paper is based on the analysis of a wide set of text and graphic archive materials, as well as on the observation of the preserved fragments of the urban environment.