Архитектурное наследство №49: Русский


V.V. Pishchulina
Regarding Georgian Influence on the Architecture of Medieval Single-Apse Hall Churches in the Northern Caucasus (p. 3-24)

The author of the article discusses different opinions regarding the appearance in the Northern Caucasus of churches with an inserted apse, which is traditionally connected with Georgian influence: these are three-part hall churches and small single-apse ones. The original compositional type (three-part domed hall church with pastophoriums next to the chancel) could have been created in Armenia, where it is represented by many churches from the ninth century onwards. In some bordering territories (Kartli and north Asia Minor) this type underwent some transformation, which is manifested in several buildings dating to the tenth and eleventh centuries. Here the size is larger, there is no dome and the pastophoriums are shorter. With certain changes this scheme was also introduced into the Dvaleti Region, which can be proved by a large number of examples (including intermediary variants of the transformation of the composition), as well as into the Serir Kingdom and into Nakhche.

The appearance in the North-Western Caucasus of small, single-apse churches with an inserted apse (villages Iliich, Kurdzhinovo, Belorechenskaya) in the 11th-12th centuries, can be explained by the migration of the Abazins and Abadzekhs from Abkhazia, which was taking place at that time. Armenian masons’ inscriptions, historical documents and certain constructive features of the buildings prove that masters from Kaffa participated in the works.

Y.B. Biriukov
Abkhazian 10th-Century Architecture and the Pitsunda Cathedral (p. 25-47)

It may seem that 17th-century documents imply that the Pitsunda Cathedral was dedicated to St. Andrew, but in reality they only state that the apostle preached at the site. It is more likely that the church itself was erected in honor of the Virgin, but had a side-chapel devoted to St. Andrew. Looking at the evolution of the Kartveli School from the Oshki Cathedral to Tsveti-Tskhoveli, we come to the conclusion that the style of the Pitsunda Cathedral represents a logical development of its predecessor in Mtskheta. What they have in common are, among other things, closed side apses, entrances to the west of the transepts and the lowered roofing of the side naves. At the same time the masons were evidently trying to introduce some local Abkhazian features, influenced by 10th-century models with their semicircular apses, as well as by the archaic brick and stone wall surfaces. The Pitsunda Cathedral(second quarter of the 11th century), which is the fourth great edifice of this kind in the Abkhazian Kingdom, can be regarded as a sort of reply to Mtskheta, as an effort to balance the influence of the ancient Christian center.

T.B. Solovieva
Documents on Construction in Moscow after the Time of Trouble (p. 48-50)

The article is focused on the documents which are published in the appendix. These are petitions (1614), written by the merchant Leonti Volkov, dealing with various payments. In 1613 Volkov was involved in supplying with lime, brought from the Village Miachkovo, which was situated near Moscow, some of the most important construction sites of the capital: city walls, the Kremlin Palace, Assumption Cathedral and two religious houses, connected with the new ruling dynasty (the Romanov family had its traditional burying vault in the Novospasski Monastery; the Znamenski Monastery was situated in the Kitai-Gorod district, next to the Romanov city residence). Volkov borrowed money in Moscow from the English merchant F. Ulianov, using it to pay for the transportation of barrels with lime, and wanted to return the debt to the merchant himself or to his representative in Kholmogory. The article also describes how L. Volkov unsuccessfully attempted to erect a church devoted to the Trinity next to the Moscow Sretenski Gate.

L.D. Mazur
Shuya as Seen by Land Registrars of the First Third of the 17th Century (p. 51-59)

It is interesting to have a look at some extant 17th-century descriptions of Russian towns and cities, created in the course of General Registrations, which not only provide us with information on urban economy and social relations, but also on architecture and planning. The present article invites the reader to have a walk around the town of Shuya, accompanied by some registrars, who were sent there by the government in the first third of the 17th century on three occasions and noted the progress that the town was making after the devastation of the Time of Trouble. As urban life was further developing, the officials from the center also perceived the changes in social hierarchy and subordination, which affected not only separate objects, but whole urban areas, thus altering their routes inside the Kremlin, in the merchant square and in various streets.

M.I. Milchik, A.B. Bode
Kargopol Fortress: Stages of Construction (p. 60-76)

In the second half of the 16th and in the 17th century Kargopol was thriving as one of the major cities of the Russian North. The article is devoted to the history of the construction of the city’s defenses, which included three wooden fortresses replacing one another. The author turns to new documentary and graphic sources, giving us a comprehensive description of the city’s walls and towers in terms of their sizes, materials and forms, also including some of the buildings behind the walls. Historical sources and contemporary topography serve as a basis for creating graphic reconstructions of the fortresses.

V.A. Gushchina
Regarding the Dating of the Intercession Church in Kizhi (p. 77-82)

After many years of working with a wide range of materials: archives, historical, archaeological, architectural sources, studying related issues in constructive engineering, proportion schemes and natural environment, - the author is confident in being able to give a more precise dating of the creation of the Kizhi Intercession Church. According to the results of this research the officially accepted date can be limited to a span of 70 years (1694-1764). It is important to take this new dating into consideration while conducting repairs and restoration of the church. Since the building is more than three hundred years old, restorers should be particularly careful in working with the worn-out constructions and the log framework.

M.N. Mikishatiev
From Mansions and "Offices” to Palaces and "Colleges”. Continuity in the Development of Secular Public Architecture in the late 17th – early 18th Century (p. 83-105)

Important conditions, both social and aesthetic, determining the appearance of a special type of public building, were beginning to form in Russia in the second half of the 17th century. The first results are already evident in its closing decades. So when later, in the course of Peter the Great’s reforms, a necessity emerged to construct a wide specter of civil public offices, which had not existed at an earlier age, Russian architects were quite ready to meet the new requirements. Even though the local style of the 18th century preserved many transitional features, which made it look quite different from academic cannons, at that stage it was a progressive trait, because it encouraged changes in the language of architecture, - the Medieval notion of artistic form was gradually abandoned in favor of certain new concepts. Public civil buildings in the reign of Peter the Great reflect the logic of inevitable evolution, when certain historical aesthetic forms replace others. The analysis carried out in the article demonstrates that the architecture of Baroque and Classicism of the first half of 18th century fitted naturally into the context of Russian culture.

A.M. Salimov
Bishop’s Court in the Tver Kremlin in the Late 17th – Early 18th Century: Location, Boundaries, Planning (p. 106-126)

The bishop’s court in Tver appeared in the 1260s, as the new diocese was being set up. Until the 1760s the residence of the local church dignitary occupied a vast territory to the north of the Savior-Transfiguration Cathedral. In the second half of the 17th century the complex included several stone buildings, which were taken down in the 1760s and replaced by a new architectural ensemble, which in the 1770s became a part of the imperial palace (Travel Palace). After several years of archaeological excavations near the walls of the latter, specialists managed to acquire some information regarding a number of constructions of the bishop’s court, which had been lost in the second half of the 18th century. It allows us to suppose that with all the individual features, the residence in Tver was erected in accordance with certain schemes that were typical for the courts of ecclesiastical dignitaries across Russia. We can also find parallels between other courts that were finally completed in the 17th and 18th centuries, even though similar likeness may have been typical at an earlier date as well.

L. Maciel Sánchez
The Middle 18th Century Stone Churches of Irkutsk (p. 127-144)

Dr. Liev Maciel Sánchez article "The Middle 18th Century Stone Churches of Irkutsk” offers a new approach to the study of traditional non-wooden architecture in the historical capital of East Siberia between 1740 and 1775. The focal point of the research is the well-known Krestovskaya church, whose exuberant buriat taste decorativism had given cause for some speculations about "oriental” nature of "Siberian Baroque”. The author argues that the masons of Veliki Ustiug, the economical capital of North Russia, are responsible for the creation of a local trend of ‘Naryshkin style’, the Russian version of North European Mannerism. This trend hugely differs from the regular ‘Naryshkin style’, represented in Irkutsk by some early 18th c. churches, and had given way around 1775 to the baroque compositions, influenced by the traditions of another North Russian city, Tot’ma. So the analyzed monuments constitute one of many late medieval vernacular architectural schools of the North and North-East of Russia, an outpost region of the post-byzantine spiritual tradition in the emerging Imperial Russia.

V.M. Nedelin
Wooden Churches of Southern Russia of the 17th-early 20th Centuries (p.145-157)

The article describes the development of wooden ecclesiastical architecture on the territories of the present Oriol, Briansk and Lipetsk regions, analyzing the principal types of buildings and their architecture. At the end of the article the author writes about the present condition of the wooden churches of the area.

L.G. Shapovalova
Northern Churches with "Barrel” Roofs (p. 158-168)

The wide variety of the wooden churches of the Russian North is based on two principal schemes – log-house and tent, both appearing in the 12th century and developing simultaneously. As time went by, the forms of the roofs were gradually becoming more elaborate. A peculiar shape, characteristic of the first among the two mentioned schemes, was the so-called "barrel” top. Art historians are familiar with this type of churches, but there are no comprehensive works which study them in detail. The author mentions some of the previously ignored buildings with a "barrel” roof and outlines the area where they are encountered, emphasizing the connections between Northern settlements, the spreading of architectural forms and the continuity of carpenters’ traditions. The subject of the evolution of "barrel” roofs is also treated in some detail.

A.B. Permilovskaya
Village Kimzha. Spatial Organization and Traditional Wooden Architecture of the 18th – Early 20th Centuries (p. 169-180)

Village Kimzha of the Mezen District, Arkhangelsk Region, is a unique historical settlement of the Russian North, which is notable as one of the best preserved complexes of country architecture in Russia. It can be regarded as a classical example of rural wooden construction. One can see here an ensemble of peasant architecture of the 18th-early 20th centuries, which maintained its historical lay-out: Church of Our Lady Hodegetria (1709), country houses, barns, bathhouses, windmills, votive and cemetery crosses. Traditional lifestyle, folklore, economy and cultural landscape are also carefully preserved.

Kimzha is an integral cultural-historical and natural complex, which is not only unique for Russia, but has world-wide importance. In order to preserve this outstanding settlement, it was granted the status of a "noteworthy site”, which implies protection on the federal level and encouragement of various forms of tourism.

R.F. Alitova, T.L. Nikitina
Trinity Church in the Village Voshchazhnikovo of the Yaroslavl Region (p. 181-187)

The Trinity Church in the Village Voshchazhnikovo, which used to belong to the estates of Counts Sheremetiev, represents a little known example of Russian architecture of the late 18th century. The article describes its history, design and monumental painting. After carefully studying the documents connected with its erection and the style of the church, we are justified in supposing that its form was influenced by the oeuvre of Moscow architect K.I. Blank and his circle. The frescoes of the Trinity Church are reminiscent of the wall-paintings of the Yaroslavl School. Their iconography and style allow us to conclude that the artists were followers of the well-known Shustov family of Yaroslavl masters and their crew.

V.M. Mzhelski
Architectural and Spatial Environment of the Center of Zaraisk in the Late 18th and Early 19th Century (p. 188-203)

The article focuses on the architecture and the spatial structure of the center of Zaraisk, which is highly original. Some of its elements, however, did not come down to us. In order to provide the reader with a wider context, the author describes the history of the development of the town and the factors that influenced it. Comparing the old, pre-regular urban plan of Zaraisk with the one that emerged in the late 18th and early 19th century, one may note that with all the drastic changes there is some historical continuity in the development of the town, so during the epochs of major alterations the old elements do not disappear completely, but are being transformed into something new, thus preserving a part of their significance in the novel structure.

E.V. Ponomarenko
Formation of Small Factory Towns in the South Ural Region in the 18th and 19th Centuries (particularly, the Factories of the Bakal Deposit) (p.204-218)

The article is dedicated to the process of the foundation and development of small factory towns in the South Ural Region. Looking at such settlements as Satka, Katav-Ivanovsk, Ust-Katav, Sim and Yuriuzan the author analyzes the plan, composition and types of constructions characteristic of such towns. These are outlined on the basis of field research, 19th-century recollections, archive materials and the study of general layouts. The most typical edifices of these factory towns are described in detail, with particular emphasis on the style, composition and decor of the Orthodox churches and the houses of factory owners.

M.B. Mikhailova
An Unknown Autograph by A.D. Zakharov (p. 219-222)

The article draws attention to an event that took place in the first quarter of the 19th century and is connected with architectural history. It reflects the relations between the capital and the provinces in the course of implementing an all-Russian state program of urban reconstruction. The presently published autograph of a letter by Andreian Dmitrievich Zakharov was discovered in the St. Petersburg State Historical Archive. The author gives a favorable opinion regarding the candidate of retired lieutenant P.A. Kulakov, who aspired to receive the post of the architect of the Astrakhan Government, which he eventually succeeded in gaining.

A.O. Sludniakov
Anatoli Demidov’s Album as a Source of Studying Russian Wooden Architecture of the First Half of the 19th Century (p. 223-235)

The article is devoted to Anatoli Demidov’s album, its engravings depicting views of Russia as the author traveled around the country in 1839. Some of these show traditional wooden buildings. Their study proves that in different places of Russia, from St. Petersburg to the Upper Volga Region, there still existed many archaic forms of farmsteads and houses, i.e. yards without roofs, constructions in the form of cone-shaped tents, as well as the predominance in these areas of a single type of a three-part house.

The engravings also represent two wooden churches, one of which is quite typical for these territories, while another is highly unusual.

I.V. Belintseva
Formation of Neo-Gothic Style in Kaliningrad (Koenigsberg) Architecture in the First Half of the 19th Century (p. 236-242)

The development of the Neo-Gothic Style on the Baltic coast is based on an original interpretation of Medieval brick architecture. Monumental Neo-Gothic buildings appear in Koenigsberg (now Kaliningrad) relatively late, - in the 1830s, reflecting the universal German movement towards national unity. The church in Koenigsberg Old Town, which has not come down to us, was most likely designed by the famous German architect K.F. Schinkel (begun in 1838 – finished in 1845). Certain features of this construction – plan in the form of a cross with arms of equal length, tall tower of the main facade with a pointed spire, fan vaulting of the interior, etc., represent a combination of Medieval traditions and later traits of Protestant architecture.

A.V. Volkov
History of the Parks and Gardens in the St. Petersburg Estates of Counts Stroganov (19th – Early 21st Centuries)(p. 243-254)

The second part of the work, describing the St. Petersburg estate of the Stroganov Family, is dedicated to the court-yard garden of the counts’ palace in Nevski Prospect. This garden was set up in the 1900s, when some 18th-century pieces of sculpture (including those made directly from Classical originals), were moved here from the park of the Chiornaya River. In 1919 they became a part of a public museum, but in the late 1920s this establishment was closed and various offices were opened in its place. The garden became a through-passage yard, which inevitably affected its state. Even after 1988, when the building was handed over to the Russian Museum, there were no adequate steps taken to preserve the overgrown trees. The cold spring of 2002 severely damaged many of them, so in the autumn of the following year they were cut down. The disappearance of the garden can only cause great regret. This "green” island perfectly completed the image of one of St. Petersburg’s notable historical sites.

N.M. Petukhova
Formation of the Architectural Complex of the Vologda-Arkhangelsk Railroad (p. 255-273)

The architectural complex of the Vologda-Arkhangelsk Railroad appeared in 1894-1898, simultaneously with the line itself. The construction was headed by the well-known industrialist and patron of the arts S.I. Mamontov. The railroad passed through completely uninhabited territories, which gave the opportunity to create an absolutely new series of constructions, without taking into consideration local styles or planning schemes. This was a great opportunity to turn to some absolutely new architectural, aesthetic and social concepts, which Mamontov was happy to use. All the elements of the ensemble were created in accordance with a general plan, worked out by L.N. Kekushev, a well-known Moscow architect of the Art Nouveau epoch, together with I.A. Ivanov-Schits. They made projects of standard stations for passengers, residences for employees and service buildings. The unique feature of this construction was the unified approach to organizing a living environment all along the railway, its length exceeding 600 kilometers.

A.V. Sliozkin
Intercession Church in Parkhomovka and its Influence on the Ecclesiastical Architecture of the Neo-Russian Style (p. 274-290)

The article is devoted to one of the grandest constructions of the Neo-Russian Style – to the Intercession Church (1903-1907) in the Village Parkhomovka, near Kiev, designed by V.A. Pokrovski. The edifice became the first large church of the Neo-Russian Style and inspired many imitations. In this light the present analysis of a whole series of buildings, which can be traced to the Parkhomovka church, is something completely new. Some of them were never thoroughly studied before and did not even attract the attention of art historians. Thus the article pioneers the theme of the significance of the Intercession Church for the development of early-20th-century Russian religious architecture.

Y.L. Kosenkova
Managing Urban Construction in the Early Post-Revolutionary Years (p. 291-300)

The practical activities connected with urban construction in the USSR is still a theme that has not been studied in detail. For urban planning, as it was developing in the Soviet era, this is a topic of great, if not crucial, importance. Since almost every measure taken in this sphere was under strict control of the state, it was essential to create a clear and efficient scheme of management. The author focuses on the complex and constantly changing system of directing urban construction and on the efforts to set up the first legislative base that would control urban planning and new building projects. The article also quotes the opinions of some urban planning specialists of the time, whose views were formed prior to the 1917 Revolution.

Meerovich M.G.
Proletarian Garden-Settlements in Post-Revolutionary Russia (p. 301-311)

E. Howard’s concept of garden cities, which was born in the West, was based on the future appearance of a class of workers, who would become proprietors of their houses, and on the development of institutions of local government. In the initial years of the Soviet era the movement for setting up garden-settlements, which began in pre-revolutionary Russia, witnessed a revival. The author shows how the Soviet authorities, who formally supported the initiative, had actually given it a different social content, debarring the organs of co-operative housing from taking an active part in this movement. The notion of people independently solving their housing problem contradicted the policy of the Communist Party and the government aimed at creating socially homogeneous and controlled "labor collectives”, tied to a particular workplace and residential area.

S.V. Sementsov
Urban Construction in Leningrad between 1917 and 1941 (p. 312-336)

For the first time some unique archive materials were used to describe urban planning development of Petrograd-Leningrad between 1917 and 1941. The author focuses on the mechanism and order of the formation of the city’s new urban planning system; on how the major projects of 1919-1933 were conceived and adopted, as well as on the general layouts of the development of Leningrad that were worked out in 1933, 1935, 1939 and 1941. Some attention is also given to the new legislation, including regulations and norms, regarding local urban planning, architecture and construction.