Архитектурное наследство №50: Русский


Paglazova N.M.
Tekor – the Kamsarakan Church (P. 5–16).

The Tekor Church is one of the most interesting architectural sites in the Christian East of the fourth-seventh centuries. Its ruins are located on Turkish territory, in the lands that used to belong to the Kamsarakan princes. Research is conducted on the basis of N.Y. Marr’s archives. The author, sharing the opinions of M.M. Asratian and A.M. Vysotski, comes up with additional arguments regarding the fact that the initial structure was covered with a cupola (longitudinal wooden beams in the masonry of the walls, used for seismic stability, etc.). The author reaches the conclusion that Tekor, the martyrium of St. Sarkis, was originally a cupola construction on four supports, erected during a single building season by Prince Saak Kamsarkan, in the time of the Persian King Kavad I and, probably, during the second period of his reign, that is between 488 and 497. Some Sasanide elements, including those of Kavad’s epoch, influenced the architecture of the church. The date of its construction is further confirmed by Armenian and Syrian inscriptions that are found on the walls.

Beletski D.V., Vinogradov A.U.
Sredni Zelenchuk Church and its Architecture (P. 17–35).

The article deals with the history of the creation of the Sredni Zelenchuk Church in Nizhny Arkhyz and its place within the context of the architecture of the Byzantine era. The building is the earliest large cross-in-square church in Alania. It was erected in two stages: begun in the 920s as a construction with a croix libre plan with an elongated western point and an additional memorial side-chapel to the south-east, and completed in 950s-960s with an extra side-chapel (prothesis?) to the north-east. Initially a choir gallery was supposed to be raised in the western arm, but if it did eventually appear, it was made of wood. Similar details of the plan and the construction can be found in different areas of Byzantium and Northern Caucasus: Kappadokia, Trapezund, Armenia, Tao and Klardzhetti. At the same time certain features of the technique of construction and of architectural form point to the fact that the masons who worked here came from Abkhazia, but they were obliged to adapt to local conditions and used somewhat archaic models. The design of the Sredni Church seems to explain the popularity of cross-in-square churches in Alanian architecture.

Perfilieva L.A.
Traditions of Mediterranean Antiquity in the Late-Medieval Architecture of the Northern Caucasus (Typology of Culture) (P. 36–55).

Early mountain settlements of the central area of the Northern Caucasus traditionally attract the attention of a number of scholars – historians, archaeologists, art historians, ethnographers, etc. Even today one can see here unique stone buildings and whole architectural complexes, erected mainly in the 15th-18th centuries, which include residential, service (utilitarian) and memorial (vaults) constructions, as well as different temples and churches. The majority of these, traditionally included into the sphere of "folk architecture”, have a "tower-like” appearance, which is explained by reasons of defense. The ecclesiastical architecture of this area clearly reflects the religious syncretism of the local population, which strongly adhered to pagan traditions, whatever the influence of later confessions and beliefs.

Even though the buildings of the Northern Caucasus, that are described here, were created at a relatively late period, the author of the article, using the semantic approach, makes an attempt to explain certain features of the architecture of the local population by stressing its inner cultural ties with the traditions of the ancient inhabitants of the Mediterranean zone. The author bases the main body of the arguments that confirm her hypothesis, outlined here in general terms, on visual sequence of historical analogies.

Pishchulina V.V
Christian Churches of Tkhaba-Yerdy and Albi-Yerdy in the History of Architecture of the North-Eastern Caucasus (P. 56–72).

The influence of Kartli and probably Armenia seem to explain the presence of basilican churches in the North-Eastern Caucasus. Two constructions of this type, in the Assinovski Canyon of Ingushetia, Tkhaba-Yerdy and Alby-Yerdy, have certain features, which give us grounds to include them into the group of three-church basilicas or the Armenian hall churches with a gallery. However, it was established that they were inspired by different models. Judging by the similarities of the constructive system of Tkhaba-Yerdy and that of some later (13th-14th c.) churches in Ingushetia, in Tkhaba-Yerdy we are witnessing the development of a local constructive system of pseudo-domed ogee arches – stiffening ribs, which by that time were already used for houses. Later this constructive element, which may have acquired some sacred meaning, begins to be repeated in the pediments of small vaults, where it assumes not a constructive, but a decorative-symbolic function. We are well justified in supposing that Armenian masters participated in the creation of both churches.

Beletski D.V., Kazaryan A.Yu.
Tkhaba-Yerdy. Preliminary Results of New Research regarding the Church in Ingushetia (P. 73–94).

Tkhaba-Yerdy is the most interesting, but at the same time the most complex, in terms of its analysis, medieval architectural site in highland Ingushetia. The growing interest in the culture of the North Caucasian population is reflected in the recent publications on the architecture of the region. New research on the Tkhaba-Yerdy Church has appeared, focusing on the history of its erection and on its place within the context of ecclesiastical architecture in Ingushetia. Our work, based primarily on direct study of the edifice and on the analysis of its relieves, allows the reader to turn once more to the phenomenon of the Tkhaba-Yerdy Church, perceiving it as a multi-layered construction, formed as a result of a number of significant alterations. For the first time the authors point out such a wide specter of correspondences, regarding the carved decor and construction schemes, between the building in question and various edifices of the Trans-Caucasian region, especially those in Georgia. Further information is given in connection with the founding of the church in the tenth and eleventh and its reconstruction in the thirteenth and seventeenth centuries. The last phase of the building process mainly involved the alteration of the interior structure – the arches and vaulting – and was carried out by local masters, who managed to create original architectural forms. However, the architectural concept of this new space, with pointed arches and domed vaulting, was already popular at the time in Armenian ecclesiastical architecture (basilicas of the Parskakhaik Province) and in Georgia (reconstruction of the Bolnisi Zion). The authors conclude with preliminary observations about the role of Tkhaba-Yerdy in the development of hall cupola structures in the region. The church awaits further research.

Sulimenko S.D.
Architectural-Spatial Model of the Mountain Settlements of the Northern Caucasus in the 15th - 18th Centuries (P. 95–101).

The article describes, for the first time, the two unique models of the North Caucasian mountain settlements: the mountain and the submountain types. The first was formed in the area of the Sun Valleys. The second is typical for the population, inhabiting the billowy woodlands of the Caucasian submountain regions. Both models are characterized by autonomous functioning and by an ecologically self-preserving system of exploiting the environment, based on mythological taboos and restrictions, connected with the ethics of the highland population.

Kornienko V.V.
Epigraphy of the South-Eastern Facade of the Northern Stair Tower of St. Sophia of Kiev and the History of its Construction (P. 102–106).

The article is dedicated to the epigraphy of the Kiev St. Sophia’s Cathedral, which began to be systematically studied in November 2006, by the Department of Scientific-Historical Research of the National Reserve "Sophia of Kiev”. The author analyzes eight previously unknown inscriptions, discovered on the south-eastern front of the northern stair tower of the cathedral. These give us important, if only indirect, evidence in favor of the early dating of the building – 1011-1018 (according to the theory of N.N. Nikitenko). Their study allows us to suppose that the construction of this part of the cathedral underwent two stages, in the course of which its initial plan was significantly altered.

Bondarenko I.A.
Regarding the Traditional Zoning and Orientation of the Russian Izba (Peasant House) (P. 107–116).

The author deals with the concepts of the peasant house’s front and back sides, their correspondence with the parts of the world, relations with the spaces of the yard and the street. The spatial organization of the house can be compared, to a certain extent, with that of a church. Some arguments are brought forward in favor of the theory that, as Christianity was introduced in Russia, the place of the "Krasny Ugol” (home altar) moved from the shady side of the interior (North and West) to the lighter side (East and South), while the stove changed its place in the opposite direction.

Salimov A.M., Persov N.I., Soldatenkova V.V.
Regarding the Newly-Discovered Tver Glazed Tiles (P. 117–124).

This article sums up the results of many years of studying Medieval unslipped terracotta glazed tiles with relief design on the front side, which were discovered during archaeological digs in different parts of Tver, as well as on various buildings. The ceramic plates, which were found in Tver, are dated to the second half of the 15th century, while the majority of other Russian constructions with similar facade decor usually belong to a later period. This is why we can suppose that terracotta from Tver decorated not just the buildings of the city itself, but also certain edifices beyond the borders of the Tver Principality.

Yakovlev D.E.
The Superior’s Palace of the Novgorod Kremlin. Reconstruction of its Original Appearance. (Based on research conducted in 2006-2007) (P. 125–136).

The article is devoted to the results of research work regarding the oldest extant secular building of Medieval Russia – the Superior’s Palace of the Novgorod Kremlin, which is usually referred to as the "Faceted Hall”. The edifice, raised in the 15th century by German masters for Archbishop Evfimi II, was not seriously studied until recently. New research indicates that the original 15th-century construction has come down to us without important alterations. It was erected in a limited period of time, in a single style, characteristic of north German brick Gothic. Numerous initial architectural elements were uncovered by specialists. The date that the chronicles gave, regarding the raising of the building, was further confirmed. The Superior’s Palace was large, its central level being occupied by halls for official receptions with ribbed vaulting. Arched galleries connected the halls. The living quarters of the archbishop were also located in the building. A clock was installed on its southern facade. The fronts were crowned with crow-steps. Soon after their completion the chambers of the first floor were decorated with frescoes.

Khokhlova S.P.
Assumption Cathedral in Dmitrov (regarding Italian Influence on Early Russian Architecture of the First Third of the 16th Century) (P. 137–158).

The article is devoted to a significant, in terms of Italian 16th-century influence, architectural site - Assumption Cathedral in the town of Dmitrov. The formal and stylistic features of the construction are closely connected with the ideological and political circumstances of its appearance. The clarity and directness of the whole system of spatial design and decor, certain unique features in comparison with the Archangel Cathedral and with many other early Russian buildings that betray Italian influence, can be regarded as proof of the fact that an Italian architect took part in the project. The Dmitrov Cathedral was expected to mark the beginning of a new epoch in the artistic and political life of the principality. In order to date it correctly, we should have the full knowledge of the logic of the spreading of the "Italian manner” in Russian architecture of the first third of the 16th century. Presently, we can only venture to suppose that it simultaneously embodies the beginning and one of the peak achievements of this trend, executed by a master for whom order was not just a model to be reproduced, but a native language.

Goncharova E.V.
Kiev Buildings Designed by Osip Dmitrievich Startsev in the Context of Ukrainian Baroque Architecture of the Late 17th – Early 18th Century (P. 159–178).

In the summer of 1690, Osip Startsev, one of the most famous Moscow architects of the time, was invited by Hetman I. Mazepa to come to Kiev in order to carry out some projects, which he had been previously commissioned to do. During the short period that he stayed in the city, he directed the erection in two different monasteries of the Theophany and St. Nicholas’s cathedrals and the refectory of the Nikolayevski Monastery, all of which can be regarded as one of the most outstanding Baroque constructions in Ukraine.

The study of these buildings, which, unfortunately, have not come down to us, revealed a number of their typological and individual characteristics, as well as helped shed light on the history of their creation, while analyzing the main features of the style that determined their appearance. Osip Startsev’s Kiev constructions represent a singular combination of local architectural traditions, styles and methods borrowed from some of Ukraine’s neighboring countries and the master’s individual manner.

Permilovskaya A.B.
Wooden Crosses of the Russian North (P. 179–193).

The tradition of erecting crosses has existed in Russia since ancient times. Wooden crosses, just like churches, chapels, log houses and icons, were an essential part of everyday life of Russian, and, in particular, northern people. They give a historian some unique opportunities to study a whole number of aspects. They can be analyzed as architectural monuments, as peasant epigraphy, as objects of worship and as navigational landmarks of the pomors (inhabitants of the White Sea littoral), which were indicated on pilot’s maps. And even though in terms of size they cannot be compared with a church or a bell-tower, they played an important psychological role in local life. The crosses that have come down to us in the Russian North usually date to the 19th – first half of the 20th centuries. A large number of them was located on the White Sea coast, on the islands of the Solovetski Archipelago, on Novaya Zemlia and in the basins of the rivers Mezen, Pinega and in the Kargopol region. Wooden crosses can be divided into several groups: some were just used for praying, others were votive, memorial, served as "light-houses”, were erected in memory of deceased people, for reasons of divine protection, as a thanksgiving and, of course, cemetery crosses. On the White Sea coast, where a specific Christian Orthodox culture was developing, the wooden eight-pointed cross reflected a particular lifestyle, was the center of spatial organization, having within the cultural landscape a protective and sacral function.

The article contains specific descriptions of the crosses of Northern Russia. It also gives information about their creators – carvers from the Mezen Region. The sizes of the crosses are also indicated, along with historical and present-day photographs, taken during expeditions.

Nikolaeva M.V.
Houses-Palaces of the Time of Peter the Great on the Admiralteiski, Gorodovoi and Vasilievski Island Embankments of St. Petersburg (P. 194–206).

The article is devoted to private construction projects in St. Petersburg during the time of Peter the Great. On the basis of new archive sources (written contracts) and using graphic materials (the axonometric plan of P. De Saint-Hilaire, I. Sokolov, A. Gorikhvostov; drafts of the facades from the collection of F.V. von Berhgolts) the author looks into the history of palace-houses, i.e. places erected for official receptions, on the banks of the Neva River. Special attention is given to the palaces of Admiralty-Councilor A.V. Kikin on the Moskovskaya Storona, of D.K. Kantemir on the Admiralteiski Island near the Post-Offices, of Prince M.M. Golitsyn, Marshal M.D. Olsufiev and some others. The present publication is part of a large project – the creation of a catalogue of the St. Petersburg palaces of the gentry of the first quarter of the 18th century.

Ukhnaliov A.E.
Architect Ivan Fock and the Nevski Fence of the Letni Sad (P. 207–218).

There is still no definite proof regarding the authorship of the fence of the Letni Sad (Summer Gardens). A royal decree stated that the Architect Ivan Fock was supposed to be responsible for the project. Historical documents do not give us enough grounds to suppose that Fock’s project was turned down in favor of that of Felten. Analysis of the materials provides specialists with the opportunity to date the earliest draft of the fence. It turns out that it was completed in the first two months after the decree – at the time when only Fock could have worked on the project. On the whole, the sketch shows the grating of a similar design that we can see today. Later Fock made new drafts of the vases and the top section decor of the gates, which were carried out with only slight alterations. The whole body of the studied materials helps us reconsider Fock’s role in the project and identify him as the author of the final variant.

The graphic materials that are discussed in the article prove that Fock was an outstanding artist-architect, who created quite original projects in the sphere of applied and decorative art.

Volkov (Burdialo) A.V.
History of the Parks and Gardens of the Count Stroganov St. Petersburg Estates (19th – early 21st Centuries) (P. 219–234).

The third part of the trilogy about the Count Stroganov estates in St. Petersburg is devoted to the once famous dacha near Obvodny Canal (now Staro-Petergofski Avenue, 20). Its vast park was created in the mid-1760s in complete accordance with the regular garden style, but two decades later was transformed into a landscape "English garden”, a process in which the famous garden planning master William Gould took place. Well-known specialists in St. Petersburg architecture and history have described in some detail the Stroganov estate. But they were primarily interested in it as a creation of the 18th century. Its existence in the two subsequent centuries received little attention - published works did not mention a single name of the owner, tenant, architect or engineer, who worked on the mansion of the estate or on the surrounding grounds. The attribution of the reconstruction of the buildings and of the changes introduced in the park is based on the detailed study of the sources, mainly archive materials. This research allowed us to establish not just the names of the "heroes”, who created the old estate, but also those of its "Herostrates”, whose mercantile approach led to the actual disappearance of the gardens.

Gusarova E.V.
The History of the Creation and the Authors of the First "Supremely Approved” General Plan of Astrakhan, on the Basis of Newly-Discovered Documents from St. Petersburg Collections (P. 235–254).

Archive documents and drafts that have been represented for the first time – the letter of the Astrakhan Governor N.A. Beketov to General-Feldzeigmeister G.G. Orlov and the correspondence of the military-engineering department – help us discover new names and facts, regarding the architecture and urban development of Astrakhan, focusing, at the same time, on the mid-1760s activities on creating its general plan by various military engineers and the architect Andrei Menshoi, disciple and assistant of F.B. Rastrelli. The author also sheds light on the role of Governor Beketov in working out and adopting Astrakhan’s general plan, which was one of the first projects of the second half of the 18th century that took into consideration to such an extent the already existing urban structure. Further evidence is given in favor of the theory that the artist, who created the panorama of Astrakhan in Gmelin’s book, was F.K. Bauer.

Chekmariov A.V.
Buildings of N.A. Lvov and His Circle in the Provinces: New Discoveries (P. 255–279).

The article deals with a number of new materials, regarding the heritage of N.A. Lvov in the provinces. Basing his arguments on certain archive documents and conducting the analysis of several buildings, the author establishes Lvov’s authorship in cases that remained unnoticed in preceding research. These are the Lipetsk Cathedral and the lost complex of the Ochkino Estate. The author also compares one little-known project of Lvov with an existing building – the Dokhnovichi Country Estate church with its two bell-towers. Lvov’s influence should also be acknowledged in its later extant copy – the church in the Village Kazarichi, which was traditionally connected with the oeuvre of G. Quarenghi. The theme of churches with two bell-towers in Lvov’s architecture, their European sources and provincial imitations in Russian country estates, is also treated in some detail. Finally, the author takes a closer look at two provincial replica’s of the Cathedral of St. Joseph in Mogiliov, created by Lvov, which was destroyed in the Soviet era.

Ponomarenko S.V.
Formation of the Architectural Ensembles of the Centers of Small Southern-Ural Towns-Factories in the 18th-early 19th centuries (P. 280–292).

The article deals with a number of aspects, connected with the planning, composition and architecture of small factory-towns in the Southern Ural Region. The author focuses on the general characteristics of the development and evolution of this type of urban establishments in the 18th-19th centuries. Voskresenski, Verkhotorski, Preobrazhenski, Blagoveshchenski, Bogoyavlenski, Arkhangelski, Verkhni and Nizhni Avzianopetrovski, Miniarski, Verkhni and Nizhni Ufaleiski, Niazepetrovski and Kusinski factories and their surroundings are being analyzed in some detail. The main types of the constructions in the center of these towns are studied on the basis of 19th-century memoirs, drafts and contemporary field research.

Kirichenko E.I.
The Imperial Academy of Arts and Tsar Nicholas I (P. 293–314).

The author holds the opinion that the reign of Tsar Nicholas I marks a radical change in official policy regarding the arts, that has been unequaled since the epoch of Peter the Great. The first symptoms of such a turn appeared in 1826, already during the first year that the young emperor was on the throne. This was when he supported the request of the Synod to supplement an album, printed in 1824, of model church projects made in the style of Classicism, with some others, inspired by Medieval Russian architecture. That same year, on the initiative of the tsar, the authorities issued a decree proclaiming the necessity to preserve ancient buildings and demanding the creation of the first inventory listing them. In 1829 the Imperial Academy of Arts was placed under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of the Imperial Court, which marked the beginning of its president A.N. Olenin’s carefully planned new policy, aimed against the absolute rule of Classicist tradition. This is partly explained by Olenin’s own ideas and innovations, backed by the emperor, and partly by the personal initiatives of the latter. In describing the new radical turn, the author connects it with the crisis of the idea of enlightened absolutism, accompanied by important changes in world outlook and the birth, within official ideology, of a novel concept of a perfect monarch. The new tendencies, which were manifested most clearly in architecture, also affected other fields of activity of the Academy of Arts. Nicholas I, more than any other Russian monarch, took special interest in various art forms, closely followed their development and patronized them.

Nugmanova G.G.
Kazan Kremlin in the Epoch of Nicholas I (P. 315–334).

The author writes about the reconstruction of the Kazan Kremlin in 1830-1850, which directly reflected Russian state policy in the sphere of architecture and urban planning of those decades. Various projects are being analyzed, as well as archive texts, a large part of which is referred to for the first time. This allows us to accurately describe the stages of repairs and reconstruction. Of particular importance was the expansion of the Annunciation Cathedral and the building of the House of the Military Governor with imperial quarters. The illustrations that accompany the article are reproduced for the first time.

Belintseva I.V.
Some Issues Regarding the Architecture of the Town Sovetsk of the Kaliningrad Region (former Tilsit) (P. 335–348).

The present-day town Sovetsk of the Kaliningrad Region has, to a large extent, inherited the architecture and urban-planning structure of the former East Prussian Tilsit – a town on the River Neman (former Memel). Reconstructing the historical stages of Tilsit’s development allows us to shed light on the problems regarding the cultural continuity of the German and Russian towns, and on the issues dealing with the future development and reconstruction of the latter. The author analyzes the existing German and Russian studies of the town’s architecture in general, and of separate buildings in particular. Special attention is given to the early stages of the formation of the plan of the small provincial border town, which have determined its modern structure. The author stresses the role of the Foundation Kulm Charter of the town’s rights (1552) in shaping its image, as well as the significance, in terms of urban planning and artistic influence, of the main public buildings of Tilsit, that have been totally destroyed – the fortress of the Teutonic knights, the German church of the Order, the Town Council and others.

Laitar N.V.
Churches of the Viatka Architect I.A. Charushin in the Context of the Artistic Experiments of the "Russian Style” in the Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries (P. 349–361).

The article is dedicated to the oeuvre of I.A. Charushin (1862-1945), an architect from Viatka, who worked in the epoch of late eclecticism and modernism. The churches that he created are studied in the context of the experiments of the late "Russian Style” aesthetic.

Within the "evolution series” of the late "Russian Style” churches the author points out two trends, that are illustrated by buildings of two types: those having a compact plan and those erected in the "ship” arrangement. I.A. Charushin’s churches, constructed in the Viatka Government (St. Michael’s Cathedral in the Town Izhevski Zavod (1896-1907), St. Seraphim’s Church in Viatka (1904-1907), St. John’s Church in the Village Igra (1907)), reflect both evolutionary trends that embody the development of the "Russian Style” around the year 1900. These are marked by increasing complexity and decorative richness of the top sections.

Slezkin A.V.
The Works of the Architect A.P. Aplaksin in the Context of Religious Architecture of the Neo-Russian Style (P. 362–379).

The article is devoted to the oeuvre of an interesting, but little-known today, architect Andrei Aplaksin, who in the early 20th century was responsible for erecting a whole number of interesting churches in St. Petersburg and its surroundings. The designs of several buildings are represented for the first time. These projects, as well as Aplaksin’s other works in the Neo-Russian style, are analyzed within the general context of ecclesiastical architecture of the early 20th century. Special attention is devoted to those constructions and projects that influenced Aplaksin’s style.

Pechenkin I.E.
The Works of S.U. Soloviov and the "National Style” in Russian Architecture of the Early 20th Century (P. 380–388).

The article is dedicated to one of the leading trends in Russian architecture of the late 19th – early 20th century – the "National Style”, which was based on reviving and interpreting the artistic tradition of Medieval Russia. The author focuses on the oeuvre of an important Moscow architect - Sergei Soloviov (1859-1912), who created a whole series of significant constructions, following the national expressive style. The manner of this master was formed primarily in the course of his research and restoration of early Moscow architecture. In creating hospital and charity complexes, which at that time were being erected in large numbers, Soloviov became the first Moscow architect to be inspired by the style of Medieval Novgorod and Pskov. He used it not only to work out the decor, but also reproduced some elements of the plans, the very logic of the composition, freeing it from academic canons. Soloviov’s oeuvre represents a certain border between the Historical and the Modernist styles, which determined its unique appearance, when often faithfully reproduced forms of early architecture evolve into an almost fantastical artistic image. This approach goes a long way from simply repeating the past and is closely connected with the cultural context of the late 19th – early 20th century.

Nashchokina M.V.
Regarding the Attribution of "the First Monument of the St. Petersburg Modernist Style” (P. 389–399).

The article gives a detailed analysis of the style of the dacha of the Grand Duke Boris Vladimirovich in the Tsarskoye Selo. In recent publications this building is described as one of the first instances of the Modernist Style in St. Petersburg. However, the history of its creation and the study of its forms points to the fact that the idea behind the project was not to create something totally new, but to reproduce, as close as possible, the appearance of a traditional English cottage. The issue of who was its creator is also treated with particular care. The author holds the opinion and attempts to prove that M. Baillie Scott, the last master of the British Arts-and-Crafts Movement, was the architect of the project.