Nikitenko N.N., Kornienko V.V.
The Oldest Dated Graffiti of the St. Sophia’s Cathedral in Kiev
The article investigates the four oldest dated graffiti inscriptions, which were made in 1022, 1033 (two) and in 1036. The results of this research allow us to refute the information, taken from chronicles, that the cathedral was founded in 1017 or in 1037. These inscriptions give important evidence that confirms the theory regarding the earlier dating of St. Sophia’s Cathedral, its construction apparently launched at the end of the reign of Vladimir the Great and the beginning of that of Yaroslav the Wise, in 1011-1018 (as suggested by N.N. Nikitenko).
Cyclopean Bricks of the Intercession Cathedral on the Moat
The provenance and the function of some gigantic ceramic blocks, which were found both in the brickwork of the Intercession Cathedral on the Moat and in the ground nearby, uncovered in the course of archaeological digs, remained, until recently, unclear. The author of the paper holds the opinion that they are parts of smelting furnaces, which were used by Nikolaus Oberaker, founder of cannons and bells, as, in the early 16th century, he was building the interior of a semi-circle bastion, which stood here before the cathedral was erected. Some of these blocks, as the defensive structure was demolished, were used for the Intercession Cathedral on the Moat. The only other known example of the existence of such massive blocks are the unique, carved ceramic "bricks” of the decor of St. John’s Church (mid-15th c.) in Tartu, Estonia.
St. Nicholas’ Cathedral in Staraya Ladoga
In the 12th century a church dedicated to St. Nicholas was raised in the town of Ladoga. Archaeological research, conducted in the 1970s, showed that it originally had four pillars and three apses. After this pre-Mongolian church ceased to exist, in the mid-16th century a new edifice was erected, which repeated the plan of its predecessor – with four pillars in its basement space, using the preserved lower sections of the Medieval pillars. The paper describes the history of the creation of the new church, its architecture and building materials, while comparing the two projects. Research regarding the new edifice demonstrates that it not only repeated the main constructional features of its pre-Mongolian predecessor: four pillars, three apses, stairways inside walls and decorative arches, but there were also some innovations introduced. These were the ground floor with a vaulted ceiling made of limestone slabs, walls made of slabs with plinthus layers, barrel-vaulted ceiling, side-chambers on the gallery with separate entrances (each having its own stairway) and a belfry over the vaulting. These are characteristic of Novgorodian architecture of the early – middle 16th century, which helps us establish the date of construction.
Who was the Tutor of Diak Ivan Vyrodkov – Builder of Sviazhsk, Galich, Astrakhan and other Towns-Fortresses?
The author presents the chronology, never previously studied, of the early stages of the building of Astrakhan. The description of the characteristic features of the Astrakhan fortress (1558-1560) - its status, size and structure – is connected with its presently-forgotten initial function as a base for campaigns against the Crimean Khans, which were supposed to be launched immediately after the fall of Kazan. The paper aims to prove that Diak (Chancellor) I.G. Vyrodkov, an outstanding Russian engineer, was responsible for the Astrakhan Fortress project. The author attempts for the first time to define the role of Diak-Builders in urban construction across the Moscow Tsardom, who, while working alongside Italian masters, learned various Renaissance principles of structuring space. The specific features of Astrakhan’s initial construction history (it is a city which largely preserved its original lay-out), the existence of trustworthy early plans allow us to accurately represent the original project of the local fortress. Conducted graphometrological analysis gives us proof that the founder of Astrakhan was inspired by Renaissance ideas, which points to the fact that during the "Moscow” period of urban construction there were present not only Slavonic and Byzantine influences, but also those springing from Renaissance Italy.
Troitski Selizharov Monastery and its First Stone Constructions
Troitski (Trinity) Selizharov Monastery is mentioned for the first time in historical documents dating to the early 16th century. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that its foundation took place in the second half of the 15th century and was initiated by Volok Prince Boris Vasilievich, who may have used monastic expansion to colonize his newly-acquired northern territories, which became part of the Volok Principality in the early 1460s. Today only one stone building remains in the religious house – a 16th-century refectory, which in the last quarter of the 17th century was turned into the winter Church of Sts. Peter and Paul. The first stone constructions of the monastery – the Trinity Cathedral and the refectory – were most likely raised in the first quarter of the 16th century. We may also suppose that the original stone bell-tower appeared at the same time.
Shuya as Seen by Land Registrars of the First Third of the 17th Century
It is interesting to have a look at some extant 17th-century descriptions of Russian towns and cities, created in the course of General Registrations, which not only provide us with information on urban economy and social relations, but also on architecture and planning. The present article invites the reader to have a walk around the town of Shuya, accompanied by some registrars, who were sent there by the government in the first third of the 17th century on three occasions and noted the progress that the town was making after the devastation of the Time of Trouble. As urban life was further developing, the officials from the center also perceived the changes in social hierarchy and subordination, which affected not only separate objects, but whole urban areas, thus altering their routes inside the Kremlin, in the merchant square and in various streets.
The Architectonics of Interior Space and the Structure of Early Russian Monumental Murals of the Second Half of the 17th Century
The paper is dedicated to the study of early Russian monumental murals dating to the second half of the 17th century in the light of their connection with the architectural typology of church frescoes and local traditions of the main centers of monumental art in those years – Rostov, Yaroslavl and Kostroma. The ways of structuring the murals reflect the two principal approaches towards interior architectural space. One of them, clearly cutting the surface of the walls into various sections, represents the model of treating the interior planes as an ordered structure, consisting of a number of compartments, their division determined by the subject of the images. The second approach is marked by an opposite perception of space as a single homogeneous entity. Both models of treating architectural space were formed by the early 1670s and gave rise to the two main approaches to monumental art.
Mtsensk Fortress in the 16th - Early 18th Century
V.M. Nedelin’s paper "Mtsensk Fortress in the 16th - First Half of the 18th Century. Architecture and Plan” describes the foundation, military history, architecture and the destruction of the Mtsenk fortress – one of the largest on the southern steppe borders of the Russian state. This defensive complex and related historical sources have never been seriously studied before.
Plans of the Rostov Spaso-Yakovlevski Dimitriev Monastery in the Collection of the Rostov Museum
The paper analyzes the plans of the Rostov Spaso-Yakovlevski Dimitriev Monastery, which belong to the State Museum-Reserve "Rostov Kremlin”. The published lay-outs of the religious house give us a clear idea of its architecture, of the specific features of the general ensemble, while providing the opportunity to reconstruct the history of the whole project in its development and to attempt to establish the authorship of its various edifices. Being studied together with the archive inventories of the property, the plans allow us to specify the position and the function of separate buildings, the changes in their topography, and, finally, to establish concrete dates in the process of construction.
Gudkov A.A., Shemelina D.S.
The Influence of the Fortification Theory of the French Engineer S. Vauban on an Unknown 1745 Project of the Altai Defense Line
The paper analyzes the results of research of a previously unknown project of a defense line, now in the Russian State Archive of the Navy. This project came into existence during the period of increasing tension around the Dzhungar Khanate in the 1740s and was created for the purpose of protecting and strengthening Russian possessions in the Altai Region. The authors managed to establish the exact date of the appearance of the project – 1745. They also offer the reader the results of their grapho-analytical comparison of the plans that were included in the 1745 Altai project with the schemes of bastion fortresses from the treatise of the French engineer Sebastien Vauban "Veritable maniere de fortifier de Mr. de Vauban” (1685). Its translation became known in Russia in 1724 under the title of «Истинный способ укрепления городов» ("The True Method of Fortifying Towns”).
Stone Churches Built in 1740-1760 in the Town Yurievts
The author gives a description of four stone Yurievts churches, commissioned by various merchants during the two decades between 1746 and 1764. These are: "Transfiguration” (1746-1762), "Our Lady of Kazan” (1754) and "Intercession” (1764), all of which have been destroyed; and also "Presentation” (1757), which is badly in need of repairs. By turning to different archive materials the author, for the first time, reconstructs the appearance of the lost buildings and gives an account of the architectural life of the town around 1750. Yurievts’ building styles of those years may serve as an example of the development in the provinces of the traditions that have emerged in the last period of Early Russian stone architecture. Even though in the middle of the 18th century Yurievts was part of the Moscow Government, and, at the same time, belonged to the Vladimir and Yaropolch Eparchy, its spiritual and cultural life was more strongly connected with the Upper Volga lands, which was also manifested in its architecture.
The Northern Part of the "Summer Garden” in the 18th Century
This work looks into the history of development of the northern area of the Summer Garden (Letni Sad), which became the summer residence of Peter the Great. By the end of the 18th century the plan and the general appearance of this territory were seriously altered, so today, without conducting special research, it is impossible to reconstruct the layout of the Neva embankment in Peter’s time, where the original buildings no longer exist. Along with the few documents connected with the history of the garden and some plans, important information can be provided, as it turned out, by a close study of the well-known panorama of St. Petersburg, created by A. Zubov (1716). The result of this research is represented in a combined plan of the territory, where on a contemporary topographic basis one can see the objects that have not come down to us. By comparing a number of various layouts of a specific territory we are able to make a better quantitative judgment regarding the accuracy of early-18th-century charts, which are usually approached only in terms of their quality.
Police Management in Russia in the First Half of the 18th Century and its Connection with Town-Planning
The author attempts to establish the connection between police management in the first half of the 18th century with town-planning legislation. Some speculation is given to the term "police” as it was used in Europe and Russia in the 17th and 18th centuries. At the time the notion of "police” was not just associated with protecting people, but had a much broader meaning, such as "maintaining order in the city”, including the sphere of construction. Since the word "town-planning” did not exist, in European languages of the epoch we often find the term "police” used in this context. The paper describes the first treaty on police written by the French administrator N. Delamare and its influence on European urban management. As to town-planning history in Russia, the author pays special attention to the activities of the Chief Police Chancellery, founded in 1718, in St. Petersburg, and of the Moscow Police Chancellery, set up in 1722. Both were influenced by the Western European practice of police management.
The 1776 Project "… Improvement of the State of the Kremlin”. Publication and Comments
The present paper is devoted to the publication of a little-known project of 1776, which deals with the reconstruction of the Moscow Kremlin. The document appeared in the Building Office (Kamenny Prikaz) (1775-1782), signed by its director P.N. Kozhin, and continued a series of projects that were aimed at renovating the historical center of the old Russian capital. Just like the one proposed by V.I. Bazhenov, this plan was never carried out. The author puts forward some explanations as to why this happened and analyzes the role of N. Legrand, the chief architect of the Office, as well as that of other specialists, who worked on the project. The published document helps us form a more accurate idea of the principles and scale of urban planning in Moscow during the reign of Catherine the Great.
The Church of the Preobrazhenski Regiment in Moscow (Regarding the Significance of a Military Church as a Cultural Monument)
The paper describes the history of creation of the little-known Transfiguration Church, blown up in 1964, which stood in the Moscow Preobrazhenskaya (Transfiguration) Square in the place of the regimental court of the Preobrazhenski Regiment. The appearance of this edifice is viewed within the context of the functions of military churches of Classical Antiquity and Moscow Streltsy Churches of the 17th century. The architecture of the construction is analyzed on the basis of various building projects and measurements dating from the 17th to the 19th centuries.
Alexander I and the Development of Russian Architecture in the First Quarter of the 19th Century
Emperor Alexander I reigned in the first quarter of the 19th century, an epoch when the Historical Style was gradually replacing Neo-Classicism. In his time the capital of Russia was reconstructed, its center acquiring an austere Classicist appearance. The outstanding architects of that epoch created the majestic ensembles of the eastern point of the Vasilievski Island, of the Dvortsovaya, Admiralteiskaya and Isaakievskaya squares, as well as large complexes around the Mikhailovski Palace and Aleksandrinski Theatre. An important role in this process was played by Russian architects C. Rossi, A. Voronikhin and A. Zakharov, by the Frenchmen J.-F. Thomas de Thomon, A. Montferrand, by the Spanish engineer A. Betancourt, etc. The emperor, being a talented organizer with a fine taste for art, managed to unite the efforts of all these architects, mobilizing them to achieve an overall aim.
The author also describes the formation of Alexander’s views on art, mentioning his principle activities in the field of architecture and urban planning in St. Petersburg.
The Church of Sts. Cosmas and Damian in Maroseika Street. Prototypes and Imitations
The Church in Maroseika Street (1790-1803), by M.F. Kazakov, is widely known owing to its extravagant architectural composition of several rotundas.
The paper deals with the issue of the origins of the building’s form, which belongs to the architectural type of "three-axes-centric” constructions. By comparing the Maroseika Church with other contemporary edifices of this type, the author establishes its possible prototypes.
The first of these is the "Temple of War” (1765), designed by J.-F. Neufforge. It also inspired two other buildings: a church in the Village Vinogradovo (1772-77) and the Church of St. George on Vspolie in Moscow (1779-88), which has not come down to us. The architecture of the latter directly influenced the project of the Maroseika Church. The author also looks into the issue of how the style of the Maroseika Church was reflected in Russian provincial architecture. Today we know six exact replicas of the Moscow edifice and five more or less close imitations.
The Sign of the Cross and the Sacred Space in Russian Architecture
The author, basing her arguments on the ideas discussed in B. Uspenski’s book "The Sign of the Cross and Sacred Space”, makes an attempt, taking into account the meanings of the Christian Orthodox ritual gesture, which reflects the basic principles of Christian faith, to describe the general principles of the sacred space of Russian towns, the structuring of churches and their interiors, while paying special attention to their differences from Catholic architecture.
Buildings of the Navy and Army Administrations in Kerch in the Second Half of the 19th Century
For Kerch – a military and trade port in eastern Crimea – of special importance were those constructions, raised in the second half of the 19th century after the Crimean War (1853-1856), which radically changed the local urban environment: the admiralty, the custom house, the military hospital, provisions’ storehouse, as well as the new fortress. Since all of them were destroyed in the two world wars, the projects of these buildings are particularly interesting. The author managed to discover them in archives and publishes these projects for the first time, analyzing their place within the context of the general plan and the panorama of the seaside town.
The Architecture of Eastern Prussia (now Kaliningrad Region) in the Age of the Modernist Style
In the Kaliningrad Region (former Eastern Prussia) we may find many examples of the Modernist style (German – Jugendstil) of the late 19th – early 20th century, which up to the present attracted little attention of art historians. Prussian Art Nouveau architecture has a number of specific regional traits and may be divided into two major types: international style, which interprets various popular European models, and national style, which is inspired by local traditions of brick building and timber framing. F. Heitmann, whose oeuvre includes a wide range of formal approaches typical for the architecture of the epoch, can be regarded as the leading master in Eastern Prussia. Some examples of ecclesiastical architecture of the time represent successful stylization of Gothic and Romanesque forms and details. The most interesting manifestations of the Modernist Style are hospitals, clinics and charitable institutions in Eastern Prussian towns, a fact that can be considered as a specific feature of local architecture.
Unusual Architectural Heritage
The paper is devoted to the expansive development of the outlook of historians and defenders of Russian architecture, which now covers a much broader range of objects in terms of their function and typology. Increasing interest is being demonstrated with regard to constructions which combine urban-planning ideas, historical and landscape environment with production, storage, transport and military functions (not only stationary defenses, but also field fortifications). All this is influenced by the need to study more deeply the most monumental form of art, with the highest material capacity, within its context; as well as by the huge changes that took place in our country, such as renouncing the simplified and dogmatic Soviet ideology and declassifying a large number of specialized constructions. Usually when such objects were raised their creators thought more about utility and strength than about architectural elegance as it is traditionally understood. The broadened architectural approach may cover both a wider range of objects and the surrounding vegetation.
Urban Planning Concepts of the 1920s-30s: Implementing the Projects of "Sotsgorod” in the Plan of the Workers’ Residential Area of the Stalingrad Tractor Plant
The paper is devoted to the process of realizing urban planning concepts of "Sotsgrod” (Socialist Town) in the course of constructing factories in Stalingrad during the years of the first five-year plan. The author studies the projects of well-known Soviet architects: "Greater Stalingrad” by A. and L. Vesnin, "Four Sotsgorods” project by V. Semionov and functional-production line scheme of N. Miliutin. Some attention is also given to the question of American architect A. Kahn’s involvement in constructing the Tractor Plant.
Sidorenko A.V., Meerovich M.G., Chertilov A.K.
Standard Wooden Apartment Houses in the City of Irkutsk in the First Half of the 20th Century
The paper describes the history of planning and constructing standard two-storied wooden houses of several apartments in Eastern Siberia (Irkutsk). The authors write about various local features of the formation of standard residential constructions of 1920s-50s, and about the influence of regional factors on these projects. Standard plans were adjusted to the local environment, taking into account the potential of the building industry of the area. Lay-outs were altered in accordance with specific conditions, which also determined the appearance of separate building, whole complexes, etc. The authors also study the role of ideological and social-economic factors, which stimulated the emergence of this type of construction in the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Various aspects regarding the typological, spatial, constructive, stylistic and urban-planning features of standard residential wooden architecture of Irkutsk are being brought to light.