Architectural and Archaeological Heritage of Moscow. Research and Museum Work
The paper deals with the system, formed in the course of the two last decades, of the “life-saving”, i.e. preservation archaeology in Moscow. Archaeological research in Moscow, which constitutes a highly complex archaeological site, has been included as an integral element into the system of designing, planning and developing a modern city. Giving specific examples the author stresses the importance of archaeological design and its significance for the environment of a large city. The paper gives an overview of the most important large-scale archaeological preservation research work in Moscow in recent years. At the same time the author describes how archaeological objects are included into museum collections, and how new expositions are set up, based on recent digs. The archaeological museum work that included the Voskresenski Bridge, the Church of the Holy Trinity in Staryie Polia and the historical constructions in the Tsaritsyno Park – all these became a concrete embodiment of the live connection between Moscow’s past centuries and the full-fledged existence of a contemporary metropolis.
Salimov A.M., Romanov V.V., Salimova M.A.
Savior-Transfiguration Cathedral of 1364 in Torzhok: Results and Prospects of Research
After many years of studying the Savior-Transfiguration Cathedral of 1364 in Torzhok we can affirm that this church remained the largest stone construction in Novgorod lands from the late 13th to the 15th centuries. Not only its size, but certain technical and technological features of the building make it an innovative architectural phenomenon of the time among those erected in North-Western Rus’. We should particularly note the presence, in the case of the Novy Torg (New Market) Cathedral, of galleries (especially on the Eastern side), which do not exist in Novgorodian ecclesiastical architecture of the late 13th – first half of the 15th centuries. Together with the galleries of the southern and northern walls of the main body (at least, along the eastern halves of these facades), masons created some burial cells. We may suppose that the credence chamber and the diaconicon (both rectangular in plan) must have indirectly influenced the appearance of side rectangular apses in the architecture of North-Western Rus’ of the 14th and 15th centuries. Specialists made an important discovery when they found a staircase in the south-eastern part of the cathedral, which seems to have led to a storage room where in the Middle Ages Torzhok’s control trade measuring standards may have been kept. The presence of the flight of stairs has altered the location of the altar partition, which was “moved away” from the eastern dome pillars for a distance of more than a meter. We should also note the appearance of special thin square bricks in the construction of the Torzhok Savior-Transfiguration Cathedral. This sort (on average 5 cm thick) began to be used by Novgorod masons only in the 15th century. At present we may suppose that this innovation in the architecture of Novgorod lands can be explained by the influence of building techniques, applied in Pre-Mongolian Torzhok constructions, on local masters (brick-makers).
Symbolic and Imagery Meaning of the Moscow Kremlin Bell-Church of Holy Monk St. John Climacus
The Church-Belfry of St. John Climacus, erected in the Moscow Kremlin five hundred years ago, is approached here within the context of Renaissance concepts regarding the creation of an ideal centrally planned church. Special attention is given to its additional superstructure, raised in 1600, and to related plans by Boris Godunov to erect in the Ivanovskaya Square a church that would be inspired by Solomon’s Holy of Holies Temple. This brings us to the topic of the Moslem cupola rotunda Qubbat As-Sakhrah replacing the Jerusalem Temple. The Moscow “St. John’s Pillar” has in common with the former not only the concept of the city’s central dominant axis, but also the symbolism of the holy ladder, connecting earth and heaven.
Field Observations of the Church of Saint Basil “on the Hill” in Pskov, 2007. Preliminary results
The Church of Saint Basil “on the Hill” is one of the most remarkable mid-16th-century buildings in Pskov. The shape of the original roof of the main body, called “pozakomarnoy”, is archaic and resembles early church roofs of the 12th and 13th centuries. This paper is dedicated to field observations that made it possible to determine the exact size of the church roof and the technique of its construction. The issue of the original covering and of the aspect of the top, crowning the pillarless side-church, heavily damaged during World War II, is also discussed in this study.
Church of the Prophet Elijah on the Toroshino Pogost – a Unique Pskov 16th-Century Building
This paper describes the architecture of a church that has not come down to us, erected in the middle – second half of the 16th century. The fullest available information regarding this building has been collected by the author, as well as all the graphic materials that are presently accessible. Additional data is given regarding the plan and the structure of the edifice. Certain analogies, in terms of lay-out, are indicated in the architecture of the Balkan region. Some Pskov churches are mentioned, where one observes the same intention to richly decorate the facades.
Wooden Churches with Cascade Roofing. Architectural Solutions, Regions, Analogies
Cascade roofing is one of the specific characteristics of Russian wooden ecclesiastical architecture of the north-western regions. The author takes a look at various architectural solutions regarding cascade roofing and the different models that are applied, depending on the part of the construction. The diffusion of the forms in question and their transformation in a number of regions is also being studied. The work brings to light some theories concerning the origin of cascade roofing, stressing certain parallels in the development of wooden and stone construction. Conducted research allows us to suppose that cascade roofing and its predecessors – square tiered churches – were traditional for wooden constructions of the Novgorod lands during the period of independence.
Two Insufficiently Studied 17th and 18th-Century Wooden Churches of the Former Solvychegodsk District of the Vologda Government
The paper describes two wooden churches which have previously remained practically unknown to specialists. They are located in the area of the upper Northern Dvina River. St. George’s Church (1685), of the Srednepogostski parish, has been taken apart and in 2008 moved to Moscow, to the Museum-Reserve “Kolomenskoye”. It was thoroughly studied before being dismantled and transported. It turned out that some unique features were preserved under its roofing: on the main square body – boards with inscriptions regarding the consecration of the church, on the trimmed logs of the square body of the second tier – a multicolored ornamental pattern. St. George’s Church has a peculiar architectural feature, characteristic of these lands – a transverse square body of the second tier, crowned with a “barrel”.
The Trinity Church (1748) of the Soyezerski Hermitage was first visually studied in 2008. It represents a type of monastic refectory church with a pyramid-like tiered roofing of the main body. In the 18th century churches of this design were widespread not only in the Upper Dvina lands, but also in other regions of the Russian North.
Log Constructions in Peasant Architecture (Karelia and Neighboring Territories)
The author studies in detail the basic element of traditional wooden building – log walls, including the corner joints of the logs, slots, hewing of log ends, elements of designing the exterior of the walls (the “line”), interior and exterior trimming, etc. The mapping of the principle types of joints in Karelian lands gives us grounds to suppose that constructive principles in peasant architecture were determined by ethnic factors. The paper summarizes the results of various expeditions, that took place in recent years, and, apart from theoretical, has also a practical aim, stressing the fact that restorers sometimes may ignore specific local features in reconstructing log walls that appeared in wooden architecture of the Russian North.
The Stroganov House in St. Petersburg: Architectural History
The example of the Stroganov House in St. Petersburg demonstrates the desire of the city’s aristocracy, apparent in the 1750s, to keep up with the architectural fashions of Paris. Francesco Rastrelli, who was archaic in following Palladio’s models in planning houses, was not able to meet these requirements. It is not to him, but to Giuseppe Valeriani that we owe the reproduction of the grand style of Louis XIV in the Great Hall of the house, the general plan of which resembled the French hôtels of the early 18th century such as Beauvais and Matignon. It is possible that Rastrelli had access to Paris fashions via the Viennese palaces of Fischer von Erlach, inspired, for example, by the Trautson Palace. Regarding the interiors the Italian architect had to accept the predominance of Rococo principles. Antonio Rinaldi proved to be more consistent in following the style of Louis XV. But only the arrival of Jean-Baptiste Vallin de la Mothe allowed to reduce to a minimum the distance between St. Petersburg and Paris and to create architecture which anticipated the style of Louis XVI.
The Architectural Ensemble of Troitski Krivoyezerski Monastery
The Architectural Ensemble of Troitski (Trinity) Krivoyezerski Monastery has not come down to us. The religious house was erected in the Kostroma Government, on the left bank of the Volga River, opposite the town Yurievets (or Yurievets-Povolzhski). The monastery was destroyed and its site flooded as the Gorky Hydroelectric Power Station was being raised in the early 1950s. Some extant documents (the general plan of 1931, engravings, drawings and photos, as well as Historical descriptions of the religious house) allow us to conduct, for the first time, a study of this remarkable ensemble. The architectural complex appeared almost in its entirety in stone in the late 18th – first quarter of the 19th century and was influenced by the style of early Classicism. The author of the project is unknown. It could have been Nikolai Ivanovich Metlin, the official architect of the local government, since all the principal constructions of the monastery appeared during the years that he occupied this post (1796-1822). The personal style of N.I. Metlin, manifested in religious architecture, seems to have a lot in common with the design of the monastery’s constructions.
The Podviazie Country Estate of the Late 18th – Early 20th Century (History of Building and Reconstruction)
The estate of the Priklonski-Rukavishnikov Family in the Village Podviazie is one of the few rural estate complexes in the Nizhni Novgorod Region which has preserved its architectural appearance and lay-out, as well as its principal structures. The presence of Classicist buildings, dating to the late 18th – first quarter of the 19th century, makes this ensemble particularly interesting. Among these stand out the manor itself and the church-rotunda, elliptic in plan. The numerous service constructions of the second half of the 19th century are also noteworthy. All the edifices, marked by different styles, from Classicism to the “Brick” style, form a single architectural whole, an ensemble, which can be named among the best achievements of Russian town-planning from the late 18th to the early 20th century.
The Verkhne-Kyshtym Factory: Plan and Construction (1755-1846)
The paper deals with a number of important issues regarding the early stages of construction of the Verkhne-Kyshtym Factory. It is necessary to note that the period of the history of the Southern Urals between 1744 and 1782 is practically unknown to specialists. Among the majority of historians, including local ones, there is a belief that the construction of the first Ural factories was accompanied by raising small residential quarters for the workers, the lay-out and architecture of which are not worthy of attention. In reality, especially if we take a closer look at the Demidov factories, the period in question is marked by the emergence in the Urals of whole architectural complexes. In those years they usually consisted of a church, a factory office, the owner’s house and industrial buildings. This was not just an accidental combination of ecclesiastical, industrial and civilian buildings, but a carefully conceived urban plan. By analyzing the discovered archive materials dating to the 18th century, as well as by studying a number of existing ecclesiastical, industrial and civilian edifices in the town Kyshtym, the author describes their initial lay-outs and construction.
Traditional and Original in the Architectural-Spatial Composition of Kineshma’s Historical Center in the Late 18th – Early 19th Century
The author takes a closer look at the characteristic traits of the historical center of Kineshma, which deserves special attention owing to the fact that after the reconstruction, in accordance with the regular plan introduced around 1800, it still largely preserved its Medieval features. Attention is focused primarily on the architectural-spatial structure of the central – market -square, as on one of the most important elements of the town plan; as well as on the history of its formation within the context of the overall process of the emergence and development of the whole local urban environment.
The Russian School of Artists-Architects: the Initial Century
The paper gives a concise review of the history of the Academy of Arts’ Architectural School – from its foundation, together with the Academy, in 1757, up to the middle of the 19th century. The author studies the evolution of the educational system applied in the School, which was influenced by practical requirements. He also analyzes the role in this process played by the directors of the School and, particularly, by A.N. Olenin, the president of the Academy of Arts. Further attention is given to various students’ works, including graduate studies, created under the direction of such leading professors of the architectural class as A.D. Zakharov, A.N. Voronikhin, J.-F. Thomas de Thomon, A.A. Mikhailov, A.I. Melnikov and others. The issue of the stylistic evolution of the School is being treated in detail. Certain graphic and documentary materials, found by the author in archives and museums, are being published for the first time. This paper is expected to be followed by further works, describing the subsequent stages in the development of the School.
Voronikhin and Zakharov: Problems of Style and Form
The author studies the composition and style of such constructions as the Admiralty, Cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan and the Gorny Institute (College of Mines) – the principal buildings, created by the masters of the first stage of the St. Petersburg Empire style – Andriyan Zakharov and Andrei Voronikhin. These edifices are compared with well-known examples of Western European architecture. For the first time suggestions are made regarding the possible prototypes of the Admiralty tower – London bell-towers of St. Mary Le Bow, Cheapside, (Christopher Wren); and of St. Martin in the Fields (James Gibbs). It is also very interesting to compare the design of the facades of the Gorny Institute in St. Petersburg with that of the Chambre de Députés (Bernard Poyet) in Paris. At the same time the principal aim of this research is to establish how Empire architects achieved compositional balance in their large projects and the way these could harmoniously fit into the surrounding urban environment; as well as to explain their huge influence on the formation of the aspect of the Russian capital.
Pechionkin I.E., Saigina L.V.
Moscow Architectural Life of the Mid-19th Century in the Critical Essays of N.V. Dmitriev (1822-1866)
The middle of the 19th century witnessed the appearance in Russia of professional architectural criticism, one of the pioneers of which was Nikolai Dmitriev (1822-1866), who graduated from the Moscow Royal Architectural College and was active as an architect and as a specialist in the theory and history of architecture. In the history of Russian architecture Dmitriev is known as the author of the earliest concept of the Russian style, which combines adherence to the classical order with the usage of early Russian architectural-decorative elements. The authors pay special attention to a previously little-known sphere of Dmitriev’s activity: his essays, which touch upon a broad specter of themes – from critical reviews of new Moscow buildings, erected in the 1850s-60s, and suggestions of how to popularize architecture in Russian society to qualified restoration of Russian Medieval architecture.
Merchants’ Residential Complexes of the 19th – Early 20th Century in Kamyshyn
The object of this paper is to analyze the architecture of residential constructions of the 19th – early 20th century in one of the historical towns of the Volgograd Region – Kamyshyn. This subject was never studied before. The work is based on archive documents, as well as on research and measurements, undertaken on location personally by the author. For the first time an attempt is made to categorize the various types of residential merchants’ complexes in Kamyshyn. The paper describes in detail their compositional structure, their style and artistic design, while focusing on specific local features and giving a more accurate dating of some of the buildings.
The paper is accompanied by archive photos and photos made on location, as well as by some drafts.
Urban Estate of the Second Half of the 19th – Early 20th Century in the Southern Urals
The paper deals with a large number of issues connected with the planning, composition and style of residential architecture in the Southern Urals of the second half of the 19th and early 20th century. An interesting sphere of local cultural heritage is being brought to light. Using the results of personally conducted field research and studying various general town plans, the author gives special attention to the lay-outs and architecture of urban estates in the Sothern Urals.
“High Empathy” as a Factor of Development of Russian Art
Feodor Dostoyevsky was the first to introduce the notion of “high empathy” (vseotzyvchivost’), by which he meant the unique responsive quality of Russian culture, that can easily absorb and adopt a wide range of elements from other cultures, as well as its ability to respond to the call of another culture. However, the author imbues this term with an even wider meaning, arguing that “high empathy” must be regarded as a constant archetypical feature of Russian culture in general. The author attempts to prove this by turning to various events from different periods of Russian history, beginning with the legendary story of how Russians chose their religion. The issue in question assumes even more importance if we keep in mind the fact that today Russian culture is once again in a situation, when there is a great need for society to recognize the unique features that make it so much unlike other cultures. The author sums up her study-essay by proposing that in order to preserve its identity, Russian culture should not concentrate on isolating itself from inevitable and traditional outside influences, but, above all, must preserve the basic principles of Russian life, its traditional value system, which for ages inspired the distinctive development of its art and culture.
Orsk and Magnitogorsk: the Heritage of “Socialist Towns” of the Late 1920s – First Half of the 1930s in the South Urals
The paper analyzes the urban-planning projects of Magnitogorsk and Orsk of the late 1920s – first half of the 1930s. The author focuses her attention on the issues related to designing and constructing the so-called “Sotsgorod” (Socialist Town). Economic, social, ideological concepts, lay-outs of Soviet working-class settlements, the predominant role of production factors in the sphere of residential housing, the evolution of urban schemes both of Socialist Towns as a whole and their separate structural elements – these are some of the aspects that are being discussed. Another important object of research is the role of the architect within the system of Soviet urban planning, which found its reflection in the activities of international architectural brigades creating lay-outs for Socialist Towns Orsk and Magnitogorsk. Research is based on the analysis of a number of archive texts and graphic images, as well as on the extant fragments of urban environment.