Regarding the Time of Creation, Alterations and Reconstruction of the Initial Form of the Dеcoration of the Lower Tier of the Main Altar of Kiev St. Sophia’s Cathedral in the Light of New Epigraphic Research (P. 5–24)
The paper analyzes the results of epigraphic and architectural-archaeological research, conducted in the main altar of Kiev St. Sophia’s Cathedral. These show that in the creation of the design of the main altar we can point out two stages. During the first, in 1015-1016, the benches of the synthronus were set up, as well as the armchair of the metropolitan, embellished with mosaic; also there appeared the decorative frieze over the synthronus, made of marble and slate plates, divided by a mosaic panel; the northern and southern side of the bema were covered with frescoes. In the course of the second stage, 1017-1018, wall-paintings were created in the western part of the bema and, apparently, a marble altar partition was raised.
Geocentric and Plane-Domed Cosmological Traditions in the Writing and Architecture of Medieval Rus (P. 25–32)
The author analyzes archaic concepts regarding the structure of the cosmos using Byzantine written sources, which were translated into Russian and were well-known in Medieval Rus. These concepts influenced the general spatial models of ecclesiastical architecture. A conclusion is made that the two mentioned cosmological traditions were related and supplemented each other: one was determined by the general "plane-domed” notions of the form of the Universe, and the other – by the "geocentric” structure of the interior world-island. Prismatic architecture was associated with the world as a whole, while rotunda-like – with a spinning figure, inserted into its center.
Vladimir, 1625-1626. Reconstruction of the Plan of Urban Homesteads (P. 33–45)
This work is aimed at reconstructing the plan of urban homesteads in Vladimir in the first quarter of the 17th century. The author describes and analyzes documents and pictorial sources that refer to the city’s existence in the 17th century: the complete body of the materials connected with the General Land-Survey of the Russian State (census book of 1625-26, census books of 1646 and 1678), other private and government documents of this period, the drawn design of 1715, engravings and plans of the second half of the 18th and 19th centuries. Making a comprehensive study of the existing written and graphic sources, the author traces the route within the city limits of Ivan Golovlenkov and writer (podiachy) Vasili Lvov, determining the location of the homesteads they measured. The reconstruction made it possible to work out a detailed plan of Vladimir, indicating private estates, as well as the arrangement of public, administrative and religious buildings of the time, preceding by almost 150 years the appearance of the first land-surveying plans of the city.
Schenkova O.P., Schenkov A.S.
The Nikitnikov Estate in Moscow’s Kitai-Gorod (P. 46–53)
The authors study the evolution of various construction projects on the site of an important estate and its surrounding territory in Moscow’s 17th and 18th-century Kitai-Gorod. Different archive materials help determine the alterations in terms of size and configuration of land property and the character of its development. The changes in architecture and planning of this estate are connected with the preferences of new owners, with the new functions of a particular part of the area. Different theories regarding the architecture of the Nikitnikov estate are being analyzed, and its lay-out drawn out as the Revision College was set up here (later – the Justice College, mid-18th c.). A concise description of the changes, introduced during the subsequent era – 19th and early 20th centuries – is also given, as well as some general tendencies in the evolution of urban planning in Kitai-Gorod, during the period in question, are pointed out.
“Wedge-Shaped Top”. A Peculiar Feature of Wooden Churches in the Russian North (P. 54–64)
The author takes a look at a characteristic feature, traditionally widely present in church architecture of the Russian North from the 17th to the 19th centuries. The paper describes the areas where wedge-shaped tops with slanting ends (politsy) were popular, while analyzing the specific architectural variants, determined by the location of the building and by the time of its construction. The character of expansion of wedge-shaped tops with slanting ends proves the fact that this form came to the North from Middle Russian lands during the period of the shaping of the Russian centralized state.
Salimov A.M., Salimova M.A.
Plan of the Town Staritsa of the First Quarter of the 18th Century (P. 65–74)
The work describes two hand-written plans of the first quarter of the 18th century, which were recently found in the State Archive of the Tver Region. We may doubtless regard the plan of Staritsa as a most important discovery, which gives us a detailed picture of the appearance of the town in the times of Peter the Great. The Archive’s plan can be seen as an interesting illustration to some official documents, belonging to the late 17th century. Of particular interest is the depiction of the early site of the town (gorodishche), which today has no buildings. Thus the hand-made draft, even though representing separate constructions in a generalized way, helps establish the location of a number of edifices of the Staritsa Kremlin mentioned in written documents.
“The True Note about a Renowned Church…” – an Early Description of the Church of Our Lady of the Sign in Dubrovitsy (P. 75–83)
The paper analyzes for the first time the "True Note…”, written by the priest Sergi Romanovski in the last quarter of the 18th century. Father Sergi’s text is the earliest detailed account of the history of construction and of the appearance of the Church of Our Lady of the Sign in the Dubrovitsy Estate, where he was a senior priest. Presently the text is kept in the Manuscript Department of the Russian National Library, and even historians of art and architecture are unfamiliar with it.
Corona Aurea: Inscriptions in Latin Verse in the Church of the Holy Sign in Dubrovitsy (P. 84–91)
The paper is devoted to a unique artistic phenomenon of the age of Peter the Great – inscriptions in Latin verse inside the Church of the Sign in Dubrovitsy, its reconstruction based on a manuscript by Father Sergi Romanovski. The author gives the translations of the extant eleven poems, analyzing their meter, establishing the sources of direct and hidden quotations and metrics, that can be traced back to the tradition of the liturgical verse of Western Christianity. The study of the poems allows us to specify the original positioning of the texts within the interior and to explain the symbolic meaning of the crown adorning its top.
History of the Construction of Peter the Great’s Summer Palace (P. 92–106)
A study of the plan of Peter the Great’s Summer Palace from the Museum of the Academy of Arts allowed us to explain why the façade project was not carried out. The author analyzes the changes in the fronts’ decoration, specifies their chronology, explains the role of D. Trezzini and A. Schluter in the shaping of the palace’s appearance.
The paper explains how the plan of the building was changed in the course of its construction: the hallway was transformed into the cooking room, the location of the edifice’s entrance was moved, and one of the rooms was divided. The author supposes why the replanning took place. The analysis of some constructive features, which have been discovered in the course of restoration, allowed to come up with certain evidence that in 1714 Schluter altered the project of Peter’s chambers – the study and the bedroom were enlarged at the expense of the third room of the suite. The replanning was necessary to create a more impressive effect regarding the appearance of the study, where a wind device in a large carved frame was installed. This reconstruction work is confirmed by the preserved foundation, located beneath the floor, of a wall, which at the time divided the study and the bedroom. In 1719, for unknown reasons, the initial lay-out was restored once more.
Bolkhov in the Second Half of the 16th – Early 20th Centuries. Architecture and Urban-Planning (P. 107–135)
The author takes a look at the evolution of the architectural appearance and the shaping of the urban plan of a Medieval Russian town – Bolkhov. The paper focuses on the stages of its development, its architectural highlights and their contemporary state. Many documents and materials, quoted or referred to here, (mainly from the Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts) remained previously unknown to scholars.
Architectural History of the Stroganov House (P. 136–164)
This work studies the Classicist reconstruction of the Stroganov House on the Nevski Boulevard in St. Petersburg, conducted in the 1790s – 1800s, by architect A. Voronikhin. Working in three stages (1791, 1796 and 1804-1805) he created a set of special rooms or studies for Count A.S. Stroganov (1733-1811), collector and patron of the arts - eight halls, where the artist designed all the details. In the appearance of the Mineral and Picture rooms one can trace the influence of Ch. Cameron. F. Demertsov, apparently, did not participate in this work. The Main Dining Hall (1793) was created by Voronikhin under the influence of Louis 16th style, on the one hand, and of the "Adam Style”, on the other. It is also inspired by the effects of F. Rastrelli’s Mirror Gallery, which existed here before. The residence of Count P.A. Stroganov (1772-1817), who pursued an active political career, was altered on a number of occasions. The last reconstruction (1804-1805) was influenced by the Directory Style, and its results are only partly preserved, with the exception of the Small Reception-Room.
New Facts about an Architectural Monument of the Two Stages of Russian Classicism. Kutaisov House on the Admiralteiski Boulevard in St. Petersburg (P. 165–183)
Located in the very center of St. Petersburg, Kutaisov House was erected in the late 18th century. The building plays an important role in the ensemble of the Admiralteiski Boulevard and, together with Fitingof House (architect G. Quarenghi), frames the beginning of Gorokhovaya St. – the central ray of the St. Petersburg "trident” and one of the three main thoroughfares of the city. Nevertheless, this edifice has not attracted the attention of art historians. We do not know either the exact time of its construction, or the name of the architect. The author, basing his approach on a stylistic analysis of the building, assumes that it was completed in two stages – early 1780s and early 1790s. Another hypothesis discussed here deals with the possible participation of G. Quarenghi in the reconstruction of the house, finished by 1793. A new generation of historians of architecture is invited to continue research regarding this interesting building.
Regarding the Architectural Prototype of the Main Building of the General Hospital in Lefortovo (P. 184–195)
The paper is devoted to the possible architectural prototype of the Main Building of the General Hospital in Lefortovo. Making a comparative analysis of the architectural structure of this edifice with a little-known project of William Geste, an architect from St. Petersburg, the author comes forward with a theory that the hospital’s design was inspired by the main motives of this project.
Olenin’s "Priyutino”. Regarding the Semantics of Underground Constructions (P. 196–205)
In this paper the author describes and analyzes the meanings behind the projects of underground constructions of one of the most famous country estates near St. Petersburg – Priyutino, which belonged to the Olenin family. Taking into account the philosophical concepts of the Age of Enlightenment, he picks out three underground structures – the Smithy Pavilion, the subterranean section of the Milk Pavilion and an underground complex, which in lay-outs is referred to as the "Wine Cellar”. The architecture of the pavilions and a comparative study of other structures of a similar type allow us to suppose that the Milk House is inspired by an idea to create a "temple of Demeter-Ceres”, while the underground construction is the "grotto of Proserpina-Persephone”. Such temples may have been used by the so-called St. John’s masons as the temples of their order. The Smithy Pavilion, with the "speaking” decor of its front, may possibly be seen as a sanctuary devoted to Hephaestus-Vulcan. And finally, the study of the "Wine Cellar” shows that this complex of three grottos may be dedicated to the elements – to Earth, Water and Air. In the "Water Grotto” one may see a peculiar décor of relief plaster, symbolizing water. The author also writes about the significance of studies regarding the semantics of the subterranean constructions of Russian country estates.
Annunciation Church of the Village Blagoveshcheniye of the Lukh District, Ivanovo Region and the Identity of its Architect (P. 206–210)
The Annunciation Church of the Village Blagoveshcheniye (Blagoveshchenskoye) is located in the Lukh District of the Ivanovo Region. But when the building was erected in 1822 this village belonged to the Yurievets Uyezd of the Kostroma Government. In the 1887 certificate of birth, coming from this church, which is now at the Institute of the History of Material Culture, one can see a copy of the plan and of the façade of the Annunciation Church, made by the Government’s architect N.I. Metlin in 1810. The published draft allows us to imagine the original appearance of the dilapidated building. Fine treatment of detail, abundance of cornices and special decorative elements, rustic masonry, numerous niches and rectangular window cornices on small consoles are typical traits of Metlin’s style, who was influenced by early Classicism. Today the Annunciation Church is the only fulfilled project of a religious building by this architect, that has been confirmed by documents.
Russia’s First Show-Room (P. 211–219)
The first public show of Russian manufactory goods was opened in St. Petersburg in 1829. It demonstrated the many achievements of the country’s industry and became one of the major political, economic and social events of the first third of the 19th century in Russia. In order to house the show the authorities ordered the construction of a large building on the spit of the Vasilievski Island – "Exposition Hall”. Archive materials allow us to come to the conclusion that this construction was initially designed to serve as exhibition space. This is an important discovery for the history of Russian architecture, because previously it was believed that the first building, raised specifically to demonstrate industrial products and goods, was the pavilion of the 14th All-Russian Manufactory Show, that took place in 1870 in the Solianoy (Salt) Town in St. Petersburg. In reality the history of local show-room construction began 40 years earlier. According to our information, this was also the first precedent of this type of architecture worldwide.
Carlo Depedri’s Contribution to Changing the Architectural Appearance of Astrakhan in the 1820s-1840s (P. 220–234)
The author studies the work of the governmental architect C. Depedri in reconstructing Astrakhan’s main Parade Square and in creating the 1838 general plan, as well as his role in designing and erecting a number of important public buildings – the Russian Market-Place Hall, the prison-fortress, the complex of charitable edifices of the latter and the Department of Public Charity and Quarantine. Some of them are still used today.
Architect B.A. Malinovski and his Work in the Far East (P. 235–251)
The author, on the basis of archive materials and the analysis of extant buildings, describes the work of a well-known early-20th-century architect of the Russian Far East – military engineer B.A. Malinovski. Some of his architectural and engineering projects are studied, which were constructed in the Neoclassicist style, as well as his contribution to Khabarovsk’s urban development. The paper focuses on the main features of Malinovski’s work, stressing his ability to carry out a wide range of commissions. The high quality and architectural merit of his output can be proved by the fact that practically all his creations are included into the list of architectural monuments of federal or regional significance. The paper also attracts our attention to other important spheres of Malinovski’s activities, in particular, his efforts to train engineers in the Far East during the 1920s and the 1930s.
Vitebsk Railway Station. Regarding the Formation of the St. Petersburg Modernist Style (P. 252–267)
Vitebsk Railway Station is the central and most significant construction of the early Modernist Style in St. Petersburg. The author takes a closer look at the process, consisting of a number of stages, of creating its design, at the same time comparing various projects, such as the variant of its author S.A. Brzhozovski and competitive lay-outs, and points out the important role of S.I. Minash and other members of the architectural group involved in the work. The paper gives a short description of the Imperial Pavilion, which formed a part of the station’s complex. The story of the erection of these buildings allows us to shed light on the controversial and accelerated emergence of the St. Petersburg Modernist Style at the beginning of the 20th century.
Creative and Social Work of Architect P.P. Malinovski: Serving Two Empires (P. 268–277)
The Bolsheviks, realizing the importance of the intelligentsia’s support for revolutionary reforms, used for their own purposes the social anxiety regarding the preservation of important works of art and architecture. The life of architect P.P. Malinovski is a classical example of the interior contradictions, typical for a Russian raznochinets of the late 19th century. Joining the Bolsheviks, he combined a successful career as an actively working architect and underground political activity in Nizhni Novgorod. After the revolution Malinovski was appointed Peoples’ Commissar of Artistic and Historical Property of the Russian Republic. At the same time he was the civilian commissar of the Kremlin and Chairman of the Commission for Protecting Monuments of Art and Antiquity of Moscow and of the Moscow Region. As a result of some tough competitive struggle with Lunacharski, the protection of works of art and architecture became the sole responsibility of structures pertaining to the organs of peoples’ education, while Malinovski’s name fell into oblivion for a number of decades.
Leningrad’s Industrial Architecture in the 1920s-1930s. Theory and Practice (P. 278–289)
The Avant-Garde epoch of the 1920s and 1930s was marked by innovative ideas and discoveries in the sphere of industrial architecture and in constructing community facilities. The paper, looking at the situation in Leningrad, demonstrates how highly original plans were transformed and simplified in the course of their implementation. The author focuses on the projects by E. Mendelson (factory "Red Banner”), A.S. Nikolski and Y.G. Chernikhov. Comparing the initial conception and the way it was realized allows us to draw a more accurate picture concerning a number of buildings of the Leningrad Avant-Garde.
I.E. Grabar and his Architectural Attributions of Moscow Classicism (P. 290–303)
The present paper focuses on some discoveries of I.E. Grabar (1871-1960), made in the 1940s, as he was studying Moscow architecture of the Classicist era. His observations were voiced in a lecture in 1947, but after the decree on fighting cosmopolitism was made public, the scholar revised his initial views and in 1951 published a new version of the history of Moscow Classicism. Reports that he found the project drafts of the Pashkov House, signed by a French architect, puzzled art historians for many years. The recently discovered text of I.E. Grabar’s lecture, regarding several mysteries of Moscow 18th-century architecture, sheds light on some of the details of his early concepts. The author concentrates on those principles and observations that the scholar was forced to change afterwards. Analyzing and comparing I.E. Grabar’s texts of early lectures and later publications allow us to establish the true scale of his discoveries in the sphere of Russian Classicist Architecture.