The Architectural Embodiments of the Image "Glory of the Lord”
The author comes forward with a theory that the centric forms of the domed and tent-roof tops of Christian churches may have symbolized not just the firmament, revolving above the earth, in accordance with the heliocentric view of the world, but also the images described by the Biblical prophets regarding "the vision of the glory of the Lord”, which had descended and blessed with its presence the holy places.
Church of the Prophet Elijah in Chernigov as an Example of a Rare Variant of the Byzantine Compact Cross Structure.
The paper analyzes a special architectural scheme, an example of which is the Church of Elijah the Prophet in Chernigov, erected in the late 11th – early 12th centuries. The author establishes its connection with a rare type of layout, that can be defined as a "compact cross”. He takes a closer look at other buildings of a similar plan, and it turns out that it was used in early-, mid- and late-Byzantine architecture. The earliest example is the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia in Ravenna, dating to the fifth century.
Graffiti and the Date of Construction of the Savior Church on the Berestovo in Kiev
This work studies the results of research regarding some inscriptions on the early western façade of the Church of the Savior on the Berestovo, which, according to V. Nemchuk, proved that the edifice appeared in the mid-11th century. Examination of the original graffiti allowed the author to come up with the conclusion that the previously offered interpretation of the text and its dating are not correct, and, consequently, we cannot establish the time of construction by just looking at epigraphic evidence.
Church of Sts. Peter and Pall on the Silnishche and Novgorod Architecture of the Late 12th Century (Preliminary results)
The paper describes various architectural and construction approaches and materials in connection with the unique, in terms of its preservation, edifice of Medieval Novgorod architecture – the Church of Sts. Peter and Paul on the Silnishche. The author concentrates on various laying techniques, comparing them with those of its closest analogue - the Annunciation Church on Miachino. It is demonstrated that the choice of materials was determined by the tastes of the donor, by his means and demands regarding the project. The height of the gallery depended on the overall plan of the edifice, influencing the positioning of the window tiers and the general composition of the fronts. The author believes that in late-12th-century Novgorod there was a certain "architectural milieu”, when several architects could work on different projects, hiring temporary crews of masons. The work also focuses on specifying the layout of the north-western compartment of the gallery, while describing the recently-discovered fragment of an embrasure-exit to the old roof. The author supposes that the bell-tower appeared quite early in the church, as in the case of other constructions for bells in the pre-Mongolian churches in Novgorodian lands.
Salimov A.M., Danilov V.V., Salimova M.A.
16th -Century Cathedral of Sts. Boris and Gleb in Staritsa. Part 1
One of the most interesting constructions of the 16th century – the Cathedral of Sts. Boris and Gleb in Staritsa, demolished in the beginning of the 19th century – is studied in the paper. Erected in 1558-1561, at the same time as the Moscow Cathedral of the Intercession on the Moat, the cathedral in Staritsa plays in Russian architecture a role comparable with the most remarkable buildings of the time of Ivan the Terrible. The authors relate the complex history of the building, propose a historic reconstruction of its original image, while defining the exact position of this edifice within the stylistic context of the typologically close buildings of the middle of the 16th century on the basis of a complex analyses of numerous sources, as well as on the results acquired in the course of the church’s archaeological research in 2004-2006.
Baranova S.I., Lisenkova Y.Y.
Architectural Tile Décor of Veliki Ustiug
The paper describes the tile décor of various buildings in Veliki Ustiug, dating to the second half of the 17th - first half of the 18th century. After studying existing and lost buildings, the authors analyze various ways of incorporating tiles into the scheme of the décor, the subject of the Ustiug tiles and their analogues in other centers. A conclusion is made about the possibility of local production in the mentioned period.
Fortifications of the Moscow State of the 17th-18th Centuries on the Territory of Modern Dnepropetrovsk: Ust’-Samarskaya Fortress.
The paper is dedicated to the study of the Ust’-Samarskaya Fortress – an early example of the art of fortification in 17th-18th-century Moscow State, the remains of which have been preserved in the Ukrainian city of Dnepropetrovsk. The author establishes the exact positioning of various elements of the construction, describing its architecture and layout.
The 1775 "Projected” Plan of Moscow (Attribution of the Drafts)
The paper analyzes some historical drafts that are now kept in Russian state archives, which, as specialists believe, are connected with the appearance of the first Moscow project plan of 1775. Even though there are some interesting publications, many issues regarding the creation of this urban planning document, of obvious importance, still have to be resolved. A close study of the history of coordinating this project and its further implementation allow us to fill the numerous gaps in the history of Moscow urban planning during the reign of Catherine the Great.
A detailed analysis of the graphic design of the Moscow Plan gives grounds to compare its certain elements with the architectural décor of Moscow buildings created in those same years by the French architect N. Legrand. These parallels suggest that we may attribute the project in question to N. Legrand and his circle. The master himself headed the Architecture Section of the Special Department and the Masons’ Office in Moscow. These organizations were responsible for creating and realizing the "projected” plan. Its urban planning principles were strongly influenced by the ideas of French Classicism. But as it was copied in 1775 the best features of the project gradually began to disappear. The present work describes the causes and the details of this evolution.
Kerch Fortress – A Monument of Medieval Fortification and the Nucleus of a Russian Town of the Classicist Era.
This paper reproduces and analyzes, for the first time, the drafts of the Kerch medieval fortification constructions – the Genoese 14th-century castle and the Turkish 15th-century fortress, as well as the suburb around them, documented between 1771 and 1824. The author looks at the process that led to transforming an initially semi-civil fortress into a military landmark, up to its demolition in 1827, as the suburb was gradually transformed into a peaceful town. In 1824 it was included in the administrative scheme of the Russian Empire as the uyezd port of Kerch.
Cathedral Ensemble of the Town of Yurievets
The Yurievets cathedral ensemble was erected in the 18th – early 19th centuries. Built in 1733, in the style of early Russian architecture, the double-pillared (summer) Cathedral of the Entry into Jerusalem, renovated in 1806 by N.I. Metlin, the architect of the local government, perfectly blended with the Classicist architecture of the (winter) Assumption Cathedral, erected in 1825-1833, after a project of the local government’s architect P.I. Fursov, as well as with the bell-tower, raised in the 1820s. The church in the ground tier of the latter, devoted to St. George and Holy Prince Georgy Vsevolodovich, is the first in Yurievets dedicated to the legendary founder of the town. The architects, who designed the Assumption Cathedral and the bell-tower, were influenced by the cathedral ensemble of Kostroma, the capital of the local government. One should note the unusual layout of the Yurievets cathedral ensemble, stretching itself clearly along the red line of the central Georgiyevskaya Street, which runs parallel to the Volga River.
Architecture of the Remote Monasteries of the Southern Urals of the 19th-early 20th centuries.
The paper analyzes a broad set of issues, connected with the formation of the architecture of Old Believers’ hermitages and remote monasteries in the southern Urals region, as well as the layout and construction of a unique cave monastery of the Old Believers on the Very Island in the Turgoyak Lake, located in the Southern Urals. The author takes a closer look at the main constructions of the religious house of the 19th and of the beginning of the 20th century, as well as earlier structures. Further attention is given to the role of ancient megalith artificial caves for the functioning of the monastery in the 19th – early 20th centuries.
Church of Sts. Cyrus and John on Solianka and the Architectural Type "Square with Rounded Corners”
This work studies various examples of local architecture, which repeat the models of the capital, focusing on a group of edifices, inspired by the design of some well-known Moscow churches. The latter were erected to commemorate the coronation of Catherine II, after a project by architect Karl Blank. The churches of Sts. Cyrus and John on Solianka and of St. Catherine on Ordynka became very popular models for copying, and gave birth to a large number of similar provincial projects. They form an interesting architectural group, united by a common compositional scheme of a square with cut or rounded edges, and may be regarded as a part of a wider typological range of similarly designed provincial churches. The paper also deals with the methodological problem of the practical usage of formal analysis, aimed at a correct attribution and dating of a specific edifice.
Italian Santino Campioni and his Sculpture Studio in Moscow
The article aims to reconstruct the artistic biography of Santin Petrovich Campioni, who in his time was a well-known marble master. Together with his parents and brothers, he came to Russia from a small Italian town Varenna, and, beginning in the late 18th century, worked in Moscow. His studio, specializing in marble, but also producing alabaster and bronze molded statues and bas-relieves, was involved in decorating many houses in Moscow and different manors around the capital.
Institution of Eparchial Architects in the Russian Empire of the 19th-early 20th Century.
The paper reflects on the appearance, in 19th- and early-20th-century Russia, of the institution of eparchial architects. It deals with such issues as Russian legislation regarding architecture and building, regulations concerning church construction, the spreading of "model” projects, setting up a system of controlling the quality of projects and erected buildings, a network of architectural and engineering education for ecclesiastical purposes. One Russian eparchy, that of Tomsk, becomes the focus of research, which is aimed at studying the activities of eparchial architects, their contribution to Siberian architecture, as well as the functioning of the architectural-construction service.
Architectural Education at the Academy of Arts: the Time of Eclecticism
This paper continues a series of publications by the author devoted to studying the history of architectural education at the Imperial Academy of Arts. It deals with the process of training artists, specializing in architecture, in the period between the 1859 and 1893 reforms of the Academy. These years are marked by an absolute dominance of Eclectic approaches within the context of practical design. Turning to archive and museum materials, the author makes it his goal to find out how this turn to Eclecticism affected the academic school. Many of the texts and graphic materials (drafts and sketches made by students), studied in the work, are for the first time brought to light in the sphere of historical research.
Exhibition Complexes of Pre-Revolutionary Russia – a New Type of an Architectural Ensemble.
Industrial, agricultural and various other specialized exhibitions in Russia, in the second half of the 19th and early 20th centuries, evolved into architectural complexes of the pavilion type, where one could observe a large number of unique constructions. Apart from show pavilions, we see here theatres and cinemas, concert halls and music pavilions, stages and summerhouses, restaurants and taverns, along with many other buildings housing the administration, the experts, the post-office, the telegraph, railway-stations, various services, etc.
The artistic value of the exhibition complexes depended on a number of factors: the character of the building site, the compositional layout, the quality of the architecture of exhibition pavilions and other smaller service constructions, updated infrastructure, planting of trees and gardens, and on the unity of dimensional-spatial structure as a whole. The festival character of the exhibitions was further enhanced by music, theatre and advertising presentations. This artificially created artistic milieu represents a new sort of architectural ensemble.
Regarding the Attribution of the House of Paisi Maltsev in Balakovo
Certain new data, mentioned in the paper, allow us to state with certainty, looking at the quoted documents, that F.O. Shekhtel did not take part in reconstructing and decorating the house of the rich Balakovo merchant P.M. Maltsev, whose luxurious interiors, made in a variety of styles, have long been an object of interest of many historians. The discovered advertising announcement points to the fact that the artistic design of the interiors was made by a significant decorative arts’ master of the late 19th – early 20th century - August Tomashka. It also makes it possible to specify the time of the house’s interior decoration (prior to 1895), and to confirm its attribution to the Moscow school of architecture.
Mikhail Bugrovski – Architect of Merchants’ Moscow
The paper is devoted to the artistic career of a little-known Moscow architect M.F. Bugrovski (1853-1925), which for the first time becomes an object of historical research. The author names and analyzes all his projects that can be presently attributed, follows his contacts with Moscow merchant circles, while focusing on his everyday work, consisting of numerous routine commissions regarding reconstruction, adding additional stories and repairs of various edifices. The paper describes in detail the Moscow residence of N.D. Stakheyev, a wealthy merchant and industrialist. The magnificent exterior of this house, built in the Neo-Greek style, and the splendid interiors, designed in a number of styles, may be truly regarded as the best examples of Eclectic architecture. By taking a closer look at the aesthetic approaches of an average participant of the historical-architectural evolution, we may better understand the unique phenomenon of Moscow 19th-century architecture. This work is based on numerous archive materials, including the Bugrovski family archive.
Grigori Lutsedarski – Master of St. Petersburg Art Nouveau
This paper, for the first time, studies the works of G.I. Lutsedarski, a little-known, but quite an exceptional master of St. Petersburg Art Nouveau. His principal projects were commissioned by Prince A.P. Oldenburgski. The architect created a whole series of unique hospital buildings, erected the People’s House of Emperor Nicholas II – the largest construction of this sort. G.I. Lutsedarski oeuvre is marked by highly individual artistic quality.
The Architecture of the Georgenswalde Villas of the First Half of the 20th Century (Otradnoye, Kaliningrad Region)
The architecture of the Otradnoye resort, the former villa colony of Georgenswalde, which appeared in 1908 on the Sambia Coast in the former German province of East Prussia, still awaits serious research. The extant constructions of the early 20th century – the resort house (now a health center), the railway station (now a private residence), the water tower (the probable future museum of local history), as well as residential houses represent interesting examples of early 20th-century Art Nouveau. The work gives a comparative analysis of existing buildings, as well as short biographies of their creators (O.V. Kuckkuck, M. Schӧnwald and others). Unfortunately, it was impossible to establish the authors of a large number of constructions, as well as the methods of construction and the crews involved in building them. Looking closely at the style of the villas and hotels of Georgenswalde, we may note an adherence to a local variant of Jugendstil, which is characterized by a freely-planned layout, a two-storied hall, around which the interior villa space is structured, as well as by using a complex form of the roofs, which determine the silhouette of the structure, the "veranda style”, etc. The existing buildings require further research.
The Role of the Artistic Heritage of Architect Emmanuil Khodzhayev in the Formation of the Kislovodsk Resort
The author looks into certain little-known aspects of the various activities of one of the local early-20th-century architects – Emmanuil Bogdasarovich Khodzhayev. His larger projects are being studied in some detail: private inns, hotels and certain dachas, within the context of the environment and landscapes of several historical areas in Kislovodsk. The author states that E. Khodzhayev was one of those responsible for the appearance of the scenic-spatial style of urban planning in pre-revolutionary Kislovodsk, and this architect made an important contribution to the history of development of this unique Russian resort.
Formation of the Lineal Plan of a City Structure: Tsaritsyn – Stalingrad – Volgograd in the 19th-20th Centuries.
The paper analyzes the formation of the lineal plan structure of an important Russian city – the regional center Tsaritsyn-Stalingrad-Volgograd. The author takes a closer look at the complex and contradictory processes of urban construction, studying theoretic concepts in connection with their practical implementation.
The Socialist Town of the Gorky Automobile Plant in 1930: from Idea to Reality
The paper describes the creation and development of the Sotsgorod of the Gorky Automobile Plant in 1930. It analyzes in detail the process of working out and realizing the general plans of construction at the Automobile Plant, while taking a closer look at the evolution of the architectural-landscape structuring of this industrial area.
Three Images of the Main Entrance of the VSKhV: Compromise, Dialogue, Challenge
The paper is dedicated to the history of the project of the 1939 Main Entrance of the VSKhV (All-Union Agricultural Exhibition). The analysis of graphic materials from the collection of the Museum of Architecture demonstrates that Leonid Poliakov created three different, in terms of style, variants. The earliest projects have a synthetic character, and they are evidently influenced by the oeuvre of the distinguished masters of Russian architecture, such as V. Shchuko and I. Fomin, who had been the teachers of the young architect, and with whom he had worked for many years. The final variant is marked by an originality of form, combining monumentalism, laconic approach and expressive character. This structure is a "direct hit”, taking into consideration the aesthetic ideal of the epoch. The author makes an attempt to define the principal milestones of Poliakov’s artistic evolution, which eventually led him to the creation of the Main Entrance. Various variants and projects are studied within the context of Soviet architecture of the time. The fact of L. Poliakov’s participation in the epic work of building the VSKhV is viewed as an important stage in the formation of the architect’s individual style.
The General Plan of the Reconstruction and Development of Leningrad of 1948 (Creation, Approval and Realization)
The paper studies how the General Plan of the Reconstruction and Development of Leningrad was conceived and adopted, a process which took place in the first post-war years. Special focus is given to the role of N.V. Baranov, at that time the chief architect of the city, in these events, as well as to the difficulties and problems which appeared at the early stages of realizing the project. The significance of this General Plan in the development of Leningrad urban planning during the Soviet epoch is being particularly stressed.