Landmarks of Memory: Alexander Viktorovich Opolovnikov
Trumpet-Pendentive Sub-Cupola Transition. Origins and Evolution of Dome Schemes
The paper analyzes the results of studying the trumpet-pendentive or composite sub-cupola transition. Its popularity in such varied places - from Medieval Iran and Armenia to Italy, Greece and Early Rus’ – raises a number of interesting questions regarding the origin, evolution and interpretation of this phenomenon. The author explains how the composite transition appeared at a very early stage of dome construction. The oldest and, strange as it may seem, somewhat similar schemes of the composite transition, were being worked out in Iran and Italy, where in the course of many centuries the structure of the domes did not undergo any significant evolution. The most substantial changes in the lay-out of trumpet-pendentive transition took place in 7th-century Armenia, and later – in Armenian and Georgian architecture of the 10th-11th centuries. Some variants, that came to life in Armenia and were influenced by both Iranian and Byzantine tradition, were repeated later in a small number of edifices in the Byzantine Empire and Early Rus’. However, as yet it is impossible to establish the routes by which these forms were spreading in specific cases.
Studies of Plastering Solutions in the Process of Various Restorations of the Novgorod St. Sophia’s Cathedral
The author looks at restoration work, connected with replacing the plaster, both on the facades and in the interior of the Novgorod St. Sophia’s Cathedral. In the 19th century a new element – cement – was included into the plastering solutions. The negative results of replacing the old tsemianka (crushed brick) by cement became evident in the 20th and 21st centuries. This is why modern restorers are facing a task to reproduce a solution, which would be identical to historical examples.
Margollina I.E., Korniyenko V.V.
The Dating of the Kiev St. Cyril’s Church in the Light of Contemporary Research of its Monumental Painting and Graffiti
By studying the monumental painting of St. Cyril’s Church we can establish the fact that it was founded by Kiev Prince Vsevolod Olgovich and that it was built and decorated with frescoes in 1139-1146. Taking a closer look at the epigraphic evidence, left in St. Cyril’s Church and in the Kiev St. Sophia’s Cathedral, by priest Martin Semiyunovich in the second quarter – middle of the 12th century, helps us confirm this dating.
Ends of Early Russian Towns and Towns at Lands’ Ends
The paper focuses on the role of ends and the center, uniting them, in the formation of the lay-outs of early Russian cities and the countryside. The author comes up with the opinion that many towns themselves served as the ends of the lands they were supposed to protect, analyzing the radial-concentric scheme of setting up towns in river mouths, "flowing” in all four directions from a single source. The fundamental cosmological meaning of such a plan is being further studied. It becomes clear that promontory fortifications (Detinets, Krom, Kreml’), being the nucleus of the town, essentially formed its main end.
Regarding the Sources for Dating the "Nikola the Wonder-Worker of the Antonov Monastery of the Bezhetsk High Land”
This article continues the polemic discussion, started by S.S. Podiapolski, with regard to attributing and dating the constructions of the Antoniev Krasnokholmski Monastery, which had been studied by V.P. Vygolov. The main argument for establishing the time of the appearance of the stone buildings as the late 15th century was based on the text of a monastic chronicle. S.S. Podiapolski began to doubt the reliability of the information given there and insisted on studying the whole body of the extant documents, referring to the religious house. The author of the paper attempts to correctly date the buildings and to find out whether we can really trust the data, given by the chronicle, by looking at the originals. He comes to the conclusion that the Cathedral of St. Nicholas and the church with the refectory were erected in the second half of the 16th century. The chronicle, on which arguments defending an earlier date were based, was fabricated in the late 17th century and cannot be considered as trustworthy with regard to the history of the monastery. A comprehensive source study supports S.S. Podiapolski’s theory.
Salimov A.N., Danilov V.V., Salimova M.A.
The 16th-Century Cathedral of Sts. Boris and Gleb in Staritsa. Part 2
One of the most interesting constructions of the 16th century – the Cathedral of Sts. Boris and Gleb in Staritsa, demolished in the beginning of the 19th century – is studied in the paper. Erected in 1558-1561, at the same time as the Moscow Cathedral of the Intercession on the Moat, the cathedral in Staritsa plays in Russian architecture a role comparable with the most remarkable buildings of the time of Ivan the Terrible. The authors relate the complex history of the building, propose a historic reconstruction of its original image, while defining the exact position of this edifice within the stylistic context of the typologically close buildings of the middle of the 16th century on the basis of a complex analyses of numerous sources, as well as on the results acquired in the course of the church’s archaeological research in 2004-2006.
Assumption Church in the Former Country Estate Petrovskoye: Research and Reconstruction
The paper analyzes the results of some research, conducted by the Institute "Spetsproektrestavratsia”, regarding a late-17th-century construction – the Church of the Assumption of Virgin Mary in the Village Petrovskoye, which was previously called "Village Durnevo”. This building, erected in 1684-1688, and pulled down, in order to use its bricks for other constructions, in the summer of 1939, became the first of a series of similar edifices. They had a centric structure of several tiers, a cruciform plan and appeared in country estates in the late 17th-early 18th century, built of brick and white stone. The results of this research are interesting per se, and the fact that, as the new Assumption Church was being raised in 2010, an excavator completely destroyed its old cobble foundation of 1684, makes them even more valuable and significant.
Bode A.B., Terentieva A.A.
Annunciation Church in the Village Pustynka. History, Architecture, Characteristic Features
The church in Pustynka is unique in terms of its architecture. Erected in the first quarter of the 18th century, it was never closely analyzed by specialists. The paper describes on location research of the church and studies the relevant archive materials. The history of the building’s construction is also related, and attempts at representing its original appearance are being made. The architecture of the edifice is seen within the context of local traditions of the Onega lands that were developing in the 17th-18th centuries.
A Little-Known Wooden 17th-century Church in the Solovetski Monastery
The paper is devoted to the study of a wooden church, which has remained practically unnoticed by specialists. It was built in 1666, on the cemetery outside the walls of the Solovetski Monastery. In 1829 the church was moved to the Island Bolshaya Muksalma and turned into the Chapel of the Nativity of Christ. Between the second half of the 1880s and the late 1890s the Chapel was further relocated to the Malaya Muksalma Island, where it stands today in a highly distorted form, being in danger of collapsing. Historical-archive and field research allows us to reconstruct, using documentary evidence, the initial appearance of the Church of St. Onuphrius the Great, which is presently the only remaining wooden church, erected on the Solovetski Island in the 17th century, and to define its typology and its historical-architectural significance.
The Labors and Days of an Imperial Mission. The Catholic Church of the Foreign Suburb in the Late 17th – Early 18th Centuries
This work deals with the history of the building of the first Catholic Church in Moscow. The author publishes for the first time the plan of the Catholic Mission in the Foreign Suburb (Nemetskaya Sloboda) of 1699, translating into Russian the detailed Latin commentary to this plan. The description of the Church and accounts in the extant letters of Catholic priests Frances Emilian (1662-1738) and John Berula (1661-1744) allow us to imagine how the compound of the mission looked in the late 17th century, with its Church of the Holy Trinity, a small regular garden, a Latin school and the burial vault of General Patrick Gordon.
Reconstruction of the Plan of Town Estates in Yuriev-Polskoi in 1630
The object of this work is the reconstruction of the plan of town estates in Yuriev-Polskoi in the first quarter of the 17th century. The author describes and analyzes written documents and pictorial sources, which give us an idea of the appearance of the town in the 17th century: the full body of the documents referring to the General Census of the Russian State, the hand-made "draft” of the first quarter of the 18th century and the lay-outs of the second half of the 18th century. The comparative analysis of written and pictorial materials, some published and some existing as manuscripts, allows us not only to trace the route of the census commission across the town, which, in the course of the century, visited the place five times, but also to establish the location of urban estates, which it described. The process of reconstruction resulted in the creation of a detailed Yuriev-Polskoi plan, indicating all townhouses and their estates, as well as public, administrative and ecclesiastical buildings in the period that preceded by 150 years the appearance of the first land survey plans of the city.
Regarding the Artistic Portrait of Architect Theodor Schwerfeger
The author proves that the three drafts from the collection of the Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences (St. Petersburg) can be attributed to Schwerfeger. Studying his architectural blueprints, we can analyze his individual style, which allows us to define more clearly his role in raising the complex of the Alexandro-Nevski Monastery and to possibly connect his name with the erection of the Church of the Nativity of the Virgin in the Village Podmoklovo and with the Assumption Church in the Village Korostyn. By comparing Schwerfeger’s church architecture with other constructions of the kind, built in Austria and South Germany, the author demonstrates the independent character of Schwerfeger’s art, which evolved parallel with that of ecclesiastical architecture of Central Europe.
Little-known Constructions by G. Quarenghi in the Suburbs of St. Petersburg, according to Archaeological Research
In the course of World War II some of Quarenghi’s buildings were completely destroyed. Excavations in the Petergof English Park helped specialists find the foundation of the famous Beriozovy House. Archaeologists managed to establish the location of the Second English Palace, which was being completed as Paul I, who ascended the throne, ordered to pull down the edifice. The remains of Quarenghi’s country house were also uncovered. We think that the log house of the architect represented in a certain way a kind of "Russian style” park pavilion. For a long time Quarenghi resided in Tsarskoye Selo in a state-owned wooden house, which later became his property. The building served as a model for standard urban architecture. The author supposes that Quarenghi may have taken part in the process of working out these standards. Presently the house is reconstructed owing to archive sources and archaeological research. In 2011 the unearthed ruins of the Church "In the Name of the Icon of Virgin Mary of Smolensk” in Shushary became an object of archaeological study. Presently the issue of rebuilding the church in accordance with Quarenghi’s drafts is being discussed.
The History of Topographic Survey of St. Petersburg and its Government in the 18th-early 20th Centuries
The author, basing his research on various archive materials, studies the history and the stages of evolution of topographic survey covering St. Petersburg and the region around the city, dating from the early 18th to the early 20th centuries. Particular attention is devoted to the process of setting up specialized state topographic services and to their activities.
Architectural Department of the Higher College of Arts
This paper is the author’s third consecutive publication, devoted to a single theme – the study of the system of architectural education, covering a century and a half, in the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts. Here he takes a closer look at the last, pre-revolutionary period in the history of the institute, which began with the 1893 reform, marked by the creation of the Higher College of Arts within the Academy. By turning to a large number of textual and graphic documents, the author managed to describe in detail the process of training architectural artists and analyze the measures aimed at improving it. The work also gives a concise description of the activities of the college’s leaders (L.N. Benois, M.T. Preobrazhenski, O.R. Munz, etc.), as well as studies the most characteristic academic projects of the students, who later became well-known architects (A.V. Shchusev, V.A. Shchuko, I.A. Fomin, A.I. Dmitriev, G.A. Kosiakov, M.S. Lialevich and others).
Building the Apartment House of the Stroganov College in Miasnitskaya Street (an Episode in the Artistic Biography of F.O. Shekhtel)
The paper deals with the history of creation of one of the most interesting Moscow Art Nouveau edifices. Built by F.O. Shekhtel, who is now justly regarded as one of the foremost architects working in this style, the apartment house of the Stroganov College was erected taking into consideration almost all functional, constructive and artistic innovations of the late 19th – early 20 century. It became a true "manifesto” of the rational movement in the architecture of the epoch. Occupying almost the territory of a whole city block, it included commercial sites (shops and offices), apartments for rent, as well as its own infrastructure – boiler and power plant. The exterior of the building in terms of style is reserved and elegant, owing to some majolica panels with a subtle graphic design, which do not disrupt the façade plane. The history of the creation of the project and its realization, which has its own intrigue, proves the fact that even a well-know architect in his work depends on external factors, which have little connection with the sphere of his profession.
Plan and Constructions of the Merchant Village Pavlovo-na-Oke in the 18th-19th Centuries
This paper, for the first time, gives a comprehensive analysis of the plan and constructions of Village Pavlovo – one of the famous Russian merchant and industrial villages, that was thriving from the 17th to the early 20th century. The author gives a detailed description of the street network, of the main architectural and urban dominating structures and studies the residential area built in the Classist period. He also focuses his attention on the formation of the central region with the main Torgovaya (Trade) Street. It represents a rare instance of village streets that have a continuous row of stone structures and multifunctional lay-out, which can be regarded as one of the best examples of Russian urban planning of the late 19th-early 20th century.
Kirikov B.M., Shtiglits M.S.
The Architectural Complex of the New Admiralty
The paper, for the first time, analyzes the history of the formation of the architectural complex of the New Admiralty – one of the largest shipbuilding enterprises in St. Petersburg. It was founded in 1712 and in the 18th century was called "Galley Wharf”. In the 1820s and 1830s the whole ensemble of the New Admiralty buildings and constructions was finally finished (architects I.G. Gomzin, E.C. Anert, engineers P.-D. Basin, L.L. Carboniere and others). The formation of the historical complex was largely completed in the 1890s. Presently its appearance is strongly altered by newly-added utilitarian constructions of the second half of the 20th century.
The Architectural Modernist Language of Lev Kekushev
The paper focuses on the process of development and characteristic features of the architectural language of one of the most significant Moscow architects of the late 19th-early 20th century – L.N. Kekushev, who erected many interesting buildings in the Art Noveau Style. He was the first among Russian and Moscow fin de siècle architects, who managed to invent a very individual and recognizable modernist manner, who had his own integral style, which was justly appreciated by his contemporaries. The author analyzes in some detail the specific traits of the architect’s language, beginning with late eclectic constructions of the 1890s and finishing with the first key edifices in the Art Noveau Style, which strongly influenced the development of its Moscow variant and the work of many masters.
Clientele of A.V. Shchusev’s Ecclesiastical Buildings and its Significance for the Architect’s Work
This paper studies the circle of A.V. Shchusev’s clients, who commissioned him to build churches. The architect eventually became one of the major masters of the Neo-Russian Style. The author describes those men, who were the members of this circle, basing the research on memoirs, letters and other materials. This was a group of people, united by a single world outlook, who were on friendly terms or were related to one another. They were representatives of the Moscow aristocracy and the intelligentsia from among the nobility, united around the figure of Grand Duchess Yelizaveta Feodorovna. Seeing themselves as the followers of the Slavophiles, they were striving to revive the ideals and the traditional values of old Russia in contemporary life, among other things, by raising churches in the Neo-Russian style. In the course of these activities, they would not only become sponsors, but also the advisers of the architect. A.V. Shchusev’s cooperation with these people may remind of the enlightened patronage of the arts that took place in the Renaissance. These connoisseurs and admirers of early Russian art, who commissioned the churches, played an important role in A.V. Shchusev’s artistic evolution and in the development of the Neo-Russian Style as a whole.
Formation of the Lineal Planning Structure of the City: Tsaritsyn – Stalingrad – Volgograd in the 19th-20th Centuries
The paper analyzes the formation of the lineal planning structure of a major Russian city – the regional center Tsaritsyn-Stalingrad-Volgograd. The author studies the complex and often contradictory urban construction processes and looks into how architectural theoretical concepts were or were not realized in practice.
Tsariov V.I., Petrov K.G.
Organizing the Architectural-Urban Construction Activities in the Yeniseiskaya Government in 1917-1930
The paper focuses on architectural-urban construction processes that took place in the Yeniseiskaya Government in the transitional period during the historical epoch of 1917-1920 and of 1920-1930, the first decade of Soviet Power. The authors describe the principles governing the organization and management of various projects, as well as the ways of formation of Siberian towns in the years following the October Revolution.
Architectural-Urban Construction Development of the Town of Rybinsk in the Transitional Period of the Radical Change in Artistic Approaches in the Late 1950s – 1980s. Traditions and innovations
The paper studies the principal architectural-urban construction tendencies in Rybinsk, a town of the Yaroslavl Region, in the second half of the 20th century. As the period of radical change in artistic approaches evolved, the traditional and emotional tendencies in art, implying respect and admiration for Russian and universal culture and history, were replaced by technological and utilitarian demands, which determined local architecture in the late 1950s – 1980s. The principle architectural-urban construction tendencies were developing in dynamic relations with factors that were not directly connected with architecture, factors, that strongly influenced these processes.