Medieval Maps of the World and the Symbolism of Early Russian Churches
The author analyzes the general structure of early Russian Churches in the light of archaic ideas about the universe. He establishes the fact that the rectangular map of the Earth of Cosmas Indicopleustes does not contradict the Antique and Medieval cartographic traditions. This scheme of the Earth’s surface, stretched along the West-East axis, is reflected in the basilica type. The cross-in-square and other centric churches were related, in terms of their plan, not to this map, but to the image of the Earth as the bottom of the universe.
The Baptistery of Kiev St. Sophia’s Cathedral - its Function and Dating
A relatively small chapel with an apse in the South-West corner of the St. Sophia’s Cathedral in Kiev, at the southern part of the ancient western exterior gallery, is described in the paper as a memorial kreshchalnia for the nobility, built in the gallery in the early 12th century. This "church within a church” appeared in the place of an open baptistery, set up in the gallery as the cathedral was being built. The erection of the 12th-century baptistery was commissioned by Prince Vladimir Monomakh in 1115, commemorating the centenary since the death of Vladimir Sviatoslavich. The decorative program of the baptistery fits into the context of the general ideological pictorial program of St. Sophia’s Cathedral, constructed in 1011-1018 as a memorial to the baptism of Russia.
The Wooden Cathedral of Sts. Peter and Paul in Povenets and its Analogs
This work studies the Cathedral of Sts. Peter and Paul in Povenets, which has not come down to us, and is little known as an instance of wooden Karelian architecture. It is one of the oldest examples of the "octagon over quadrangle” type of church which we have information about – the most widespread lay-out in the Russian North in the 17th and 18th centuries. The author looks into various issues connected with its formation. The cathedral is described in detail, its graphic reconstruction is being presented, as well as the history of its building. The paper gives us a comparative analysis of the Povenets Cathedral with other similar buildings – the churches in Chelmuzhi and in the Muyezerski Monastery.
Development of the Functional-Planning Structure of the Zaonezhiye Chapels in the Second Half of the 17th – Early 20th Centuries
Studying the data base that includes 93 traditional log cabin Zaonezhiye (a large peninsula of Lake Onega) chapels, the author describes the transitions in the character of the different rooms and their numbers in the "altarless” type of the churches on the peninsula. He further analyzes the tendencies in building and reconstructing chapels, containing various rooms, and defines the areas and chronological borders of designing and modifying various chapel schemes. The local characteristics of their forms are interpreted in the light of the specific features of historical development and the ethnocultural situation in the Zaonezhiye Region.
Mtsensk in the 12th-early 20th Centuries. Architecture and Urban Planning
The work studies the architecture of one of the oldest Russian towns – Mtsensk. Taking into account a large amount of archive materials, the author looks at the formation of the urban environment of Mtsensk from the Middle Ages to the early 20th century, concentrating on the analysis of the regular plan of the town, which appeared in the late 18th century and on the problems of its implementation. He also gives a survey of the local architectural monuments, both existing and lost.
Alitova R.F., Nikitina T.L.
Formation and Development of the Iconography of Rostov the Great in the 18th and 19th Centuries
The paper focuses on the formation and development of the iconography of Rostov the Great in icon-painting, monumental painting, graphic arts and decorative-applied arts from the early 18th to the mid-19th century.
Maciel Sanchez L.C.
Buddhist Temples of Buryatia: from Russia to Tibet
The paper offers a periodization of the Buryat Buddhist architecture and characterizes its different stages. In 1750-1850 the iconography was influenced by Tibet – symbolical images of mandalas, conventionally realistic representations of Tibetan sacred places. At the same time the architectural forms combined Russian techniques and features with some elements of construction practice in neighboring Khalkha-Mongolia. In 1850-1900 Buryat builders begin to move further away from Russian heritage, their works becoming more a part of the Buddhist far-eastern tradition. Combining traits coming from Tibet and China, they increasingly start to resemble not only Mongolian, but east Tibetan architecture. Finally, in 1900-1930, the development of historical mentality stimulates a new conscious approach, involving both respect for one’s own old traditions and inspiration driven from famous Tibetan models, when their iconography and specific forms are being accurately reproduced.
The Instructions of Count P.I. Shuvalov of 1760: a Collection of Archive Documents regarding "European Type” Fortresses in East Siberia
This work presents the results of studying a unique set of archive documents – the 1760 Instructions, issued by count P.I. Shuvalov, involving the construction projects of fortresses along the Nerchinsk and the Selenginsk defensive lines. The author is convinced that the texts of the Instructions should be studied as a single whole, together with the attached projects and taking into account the historical context of their appearance. It is established that the Instructions were aimed at realizing certain goals connected with the Nerchinsk expedition. The projects accompanying them fit the descriptions of the four "types” of fortresses. The results of the comparative analysis of the lay-outs and the structures of the fortresses are also given. These show that the architects who designed the Eastern Siberian fortresses based their work on European fortification theories. The results of this research allow us to draw a more accurate picture regarding the features, connected with the building of fortified settlements in 18th-century Eastern Siberia. Previously unstudied materials from the collection of the Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts are being offered to the reader.
The Architectural Program of the 1742 Coronation of Empress Elizabeth and Moscow of the Baroque Era
The paper studies the architectural works of 1741-1742, which took place in Moscow in connection with preparing the coronation of Empress Yelizaveta Petrovna. This research allows us to conclude that there existed a general architectural plan, involving the setting up of coronation celebrations, which was reflected in the 1744 coronation album. In the current work it is being specifically studied in terms of its "architectural” content. Excluding the projects of triumphal gates, little is known about the extensive repairs that at the time took place in the Kremlin and in the imperial palaces on the Yauza River. Other constructions were created following imperial commissions, even though they were not directly connected with the coronation ceremony. The author emphasizes the role of triumphal architecture, focusing on the example of the Krasnyye Vorota, in the formation of important urban junctions in Moscow of the Baroque period.
Interpreting Single-Pillared Chambers in the Architecture of Russian Classicism
Specialists, studying the history of Russian art, have formed a general opinion regarding the usage of halls with a single pillar in early Russian architecture. The appearance of a central pillar in buildings of the Classicism epoch has an absolutely different source. The paper analyzes some Italian and French examples of this constructive scheme, and the routes by which it could reach Russia. The popularity of this lay-out and the ways in which it could be carried out in French Classicism interiors allows us not only to study it within the context of Russian architecture, but also to try to establish the attribution of various constructions of Russian Classicism.
Regarding the Attribution of the Resurrection Church in Baturin
The author analyzes and compares the stylistic features that characterize two of the most representative late-18th-century buildings by Adam Menelas – the cathedrals in Mogilev and Sophia, and reaches the conclusion that the Resurrection Church in Baturin may be attributed to the same architect. Menelas’ style was directly influenced by his collaboration with the leading masters of that time – Charles Cameron and Nikolai Lvov. The latter introduced Menelas to the Razumovski Family, for which he erected a number of buildings. Owing to the prestige of the Razumovski Family among the Ukrainian nobility, the architecture of the Baturin church influenced other ecclesiastical buildings in Novy Bykov, Kochergi and Kachanovka.
Engravings, Based on the Works of Angelica Kauffman, as a Source of Subjects and Compositions for Moscow Architectural Décor of the Late 18th – First Third of the 19th Century
The author studies the subjects of the reliefs on the facades and in the interiors of certain Moscow buildings, for which engravings, based on A. Kauffman’s originals, were used as a model. Architects may have not always planned beforehand all the details of a building’s décor. The character of the sculpture, embellishing the edifice, was determined by those who commissioned the work. The original engraving composition could be substantially modified in a relief, possibly following the recommendations of the client. Studios would usually use engravings for a relief without any alterations. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries works by A. Kauffman were popular and inspired not only masters of applied and decorative art, but also those who decorated interiors of private houses, and these were not only engravings from her originals, but reliefs as well.
Architect Alexander Briullov. New Forms in the Work of an Architect of the First Period of Eclecticism.
A.Briullov’s works mark the beginning of the early stage in the development of a new trend in Russian architecture, which became predominant for several decades in the 19th century. Rejecting the dogmas of Neoclassicism, which had been already largely overcome by the leading masters of the Empire Style, architects started facing the necessity of creating a new artistic language. In such a situation the ideas of rationalism became particularly popular. Architecture assumes a highly decorative character, providing the author of the project and the client with the freedom to choose different motives and "styles”, which, in addition, play a certain semantic role. The combination of a skillfully organized composition, based on academic training, with an elegant taste for detail characterize the most significant works of A.P. Briullov. The present paper studies the architecture of Countess Samoylova’s dacha, the Lutheran Church of St. Peter in Nevski Prospect, the Church of Sts. Peter and Paul in Pargolovo and the complex of the Pulkovo Astronomical Observatory.
Samigulov G.Kh., Mitina N.N., Druzhinina A.V.
Lost Heritage – the Church of St. Michael in Troitsk
St. Michaels’ Church was erected in the town Troitsk in the last third of the 19th century, modeled after the Annunciation Church of the Cavalry Guards’ (Konno-gvardeiski) Regiment in St. Petersburg. At the time of its appearance, in the same square, flanking its northern side, there was built a stone Gostinny Dvor (Market). By the end of the 19th century the architectural ensemble of the Mikhailovski Square was formed. The closed perspective of one of its sides, the open space around the church itself, the small height of the market constructions and the vertical dominant of the former created a certain three-dimensional space, in the center of which one could see a church, its silhouette emphatically rising upwards. In 1967, commemorating the anniversary of the October Revolution, the building was destroyed.
Architects of the West-Siberian Educational District in the late 19th-early 20th Century
This paper studies the activities of the architects, who worked in the late 19th-early 20th century, under the direction of the Ministry of Public Education in the West-Siberian Educational District (the territory of the Tomsk and Tobolsk Governmets and the neighboring regions: Akmolinsk, Semipalatinsk and Semirechinsk; Tomsk being the administrative center of the area). The author looks at the process of forming the system of architectural and construction services, and its setting up as a centralized institute that has branches in regional offices. Individual characteristics of the style of various architects, who worked for the ministry in the West-Siberian Educational District, such as P.P. Naranovich, F.F. Gut, A.D. Kriachkov, are being presented to the reader with some facts about their contribution into the development of local architecture.
Architectural Competition of 1911 in Rauschen (Svetlogorsk, Kaliningrad Region): Projects and Reality
The author looks at the history of an architectural competition which took place in Eastern Prussia in 1911. Its aim was to work out a design of a suburban house in Rauschen, a seaside resort popular in the beginning of the 20th century. The text focuses on the special interest that early-20th-century architects had in constructing private houses for middle-class families, taking into account the influence of British architecture regarding country houses, as well as other foreign trends. The author analyzes the stylistic features of those projects, which reflect a transitional period from Art Nouveau to its latter rationalistic stage and functionalism. For the first time in Russian art history one can read about the biographies of the members of the competition’s committee, get to know the various features of the different projects and the extant constructions of such architects as M. Schönwald and R. Schön, who were quite popular at the time. Even though the projects in question were not carried out, they left their imprint on the formation of the historical appearance of the resort and influenced the contemporary architecture of Svetlogorsk.
Architect Alexander Grinberg and Stylistic Trends of the Soviet Architecture of the 1920s-1930s.
The paper is dedicated to the projects of A.Z. Grinberg, a well-known architect and a graduate of the Academy of Arts, who in pre-revolutionary years had successfully participated in 17 important competitions. In the 1920s and 1930s his experience in constructing large and important urban objects, exhibition complexes, museums and public health buildings was in high demand. He was the author of the first monumental edifice of the epoch – the Proletariat House in Saratov, he also took part in the construction of the Moscow Agricultural Exhibition, erected the first House of Soviets (Briansk), which became the first Constructivist building in the country. His masterpiece was the New Type Theatre in Novosibirsk, its project initiated in 1929, reflecting the changes which took place in Soviet architecture as it was moving from Avant-Garde to a new approach towards classical heritage, marking the appearance of a notably different style.
Ptichnikova G.A., Flirl T.
Competition between the Different Projects of Constructing a Sotsgorod: Propositions by V.N. Semionov and E. May regarding Stalingrad, 1928-1931
The work focuses on the dramatic debate between various concepts of creating a "socialist city”. The authors, analyzing the two opposing architectural projects of V.N. Semionov and E. May concerning the urban planning of Stalingrad, describe the two principally different approaches regarding the development of the city. The first one – "a Sotsgorod Chain”, designed by V.N. Semionov and Giprogor, the second – "a stripe pattern along the Volga”, worked out by Ernst May, whose group was backed by Tsekombank and Stalingradstroi. Previously unpublished documents from German sources are being presented to the reader.
Metro Station "Kurskaya” in the Architectural Heritage of L.M. Poliakov
The author looks at the project of the metro station "Kurskaya” as a certain stage in the artistic development of L.M. Poliakov. In order to understand the logic of the artistic evolution of the architect in the 1930s we should note three important factors. 1. Leonid Poliakov, a favorite disciple of Ivan Fomin, worked together with his teacher in creating the station "Teatralnaya”. After Fomin’s death he finished the project without any changes. 2. Station "Kurskaya”, opened in 1938, demonstrates that Poliakov has become completely independent from his teacher’s influence, even though Leonid Poliakov used certain iconographic elements and motives of his teacher. 3. The architecture of the "Kurskaya” demonstrates that certain features of Poliakov’s style were influenced by such important masters of Soviet architecture as Shchuko and Ioafan. The style of the "Kurskaya” metro station is synthetic in its character, combining the leading traits of contemporary art. In order to obtain a form that would most accurately reflect the epoch, the architect rejected the influence of his teacher. The design of "Kurskaya” echoes the style of Iofan.
The Sotsrasseleniye Discussion. New Materials
The paper focuses on the motives that led the Central Committee of the Communist Party to make one of the key decisions in the history of Soviet architecture – the decree "On Reconstructing Living Conditions”, which put an end to the Sotsrasseleniye (socialist settling) Discussion. The author quotes previously unpublished materials from the Russian State Archive of Social-Political History, which shed light on how decisions, regarding urban construction and architecture, were made in Stalin’s government.
Foreign and Russian Historiography regarding the Works of Russian Architects – Graduates of the Imperial Academy of Arts – in the 1920s-30s in Belgrade.
The work studies Serbian and Russian historiography from the 1930s to 2011, describing the activities of Russian emigrant architects in Yugoslavia in the 1920s-1930s, predominantly in Belgrade. The author looks at various publications, including articles from the press, as well as materials referring to conferences and internet information regarding the most important figures: N.P. Krasnov, V.M. Androsov, V.F. Baumgarten, R.N. Verkhovski, A.V. Papkov. Special attention is given to the relations of Russian architects with circles close to the Yugoslav Government and with the local professional community. The author comes to the conclusion that the leading role in studying Russian architectural heritage in Belgrade belongs to Serbian scholars, whose works should be translated into Russian. Different stages in Russian architectural heritage are being outlined in the paper, emphasizing the positive approach to it in the last decade, as the works of Russian architects are being seen as both a part of Serbian and Russian history.