The Stove and the Holy Corner: Regarding the Origin of the Tradition of their Mutual Positioning
The paper proposes a hypothesis that the traditional position of the stove and the holy corner (krasny ugol) with regard to one another in a Russian izba (peasant house) was rooted in astral imagery as it had been depicted in a whole series of ancient constellations, situated, primarily, in the Milky Way and around it. The author holds the opinion that the stove was associated with the Altar Constellation while the holy corner – with the constellations of the Taurus, Gemini, Orion, Canis Major, under which the Stern of the Argo Ship or of Noah’s Ark was believed to be located. A geometrical analysis is conducted, based on the division of the celestial sphere by the Milky Way and a circle, symmetrical to it, as well as on the inclined ecliptic plane, which allows us to perceive the image of the izba as a boat and a starry terem (tower-house).
Church of St. John na Opokakh in Novgorod as an Example of Late Medieval Architecture
The work studies one example of Novgorodian 15th-century architecture – the Church of St. John the Baptist na Opokakh (or na Petriatinye Dvorishche). It was erected in 1453 on the foundations of a demolished church dating to 1184, which, in its turn, had been constructed on a basis of an earlier building of pre-Mongolian times. It was an important center of social life in Novgorod – inside was kept a wax standard and a corporation of merchants gathered here, the Ivanskoye Sto. This is why the church was created in such an imposing manner, just as the architectural concept behind it was imposing: the preceding edifice had been "remembered” before being destroyed and reconstructed with maximum accuracy, which turned the new church into a certain material embodiment of a shadow or of an "idea” of the previous one. At the same time an additional ground floor (podtserkoviye) was added to the plan of the "restored” church, the former at first made of wood, which had the effect of the interior loosing some of its height, becoming if not actually squat, but lowered, reduced. In this phenomenon the "passeism” of the culture of late Medieval Novgorod manifests itself, a culture which was essentially "historic” in mid-15th century. From a cultorological viewpoint a "restoration” of this sort is a curious and revealing fact, when the artistic merits of the church suffer from this intentional repetition of past forms.
Russian Chronicles and the Construction Chronology of the Walls and Towers of the Moscow Kremlin in the 1480s-1490s
The work is devoted to a number of chronicles referring to the construction of the walls and towers of the Moscow Kremlin in 1485-1495(?). All the existing narrative sources are being taken into account and analyzed in the light of contemporary knowledge on the subject, certain dates are defined more accurately, additional sources are being studied, which have escaped the attention of scholars. As a result the author comes forward with a year-by-year chronology of the Moscow Kremlin’s fortifications.
Moscow Tiles: from the White Sea to the Volga Region and Siberia
The article is devoted to the history of the spreading of Moscow tiles across Russia in the 17th century. It focuses on the different paths that Moscow ceramics found their way to other parts of the country: tiles, molds for producing them, travelling artisans. The author compares the pieces from Moscow and from the other centers of production, pointing out the influence of the capital as well as the specific features of each region.
Evolution of the Architectural Appearance of Commercial Spaces in Vladimir in the 17th Century
The paper, based on information from original documents, describes the three-dimensional spatial composition of 17th-century commercial Vladimir as a single whole: the fortress market, the market square of the posad (quarters outside the city wall) and the square beside the Golden Gates, connected with a single planning pivot – the Bolshaya Street. The detailed retrospective reconstruction of Vladimir’s torg (market square) in 1625-1626, carried out by the author, which includes all the private and public buildings, located there, is especially interesting. What makes this reconstruction particularly important is the fact that the first most general land-surveying drawings of Vladimir, representing its urban plan, appeared more than 150 years later.
“Peter’s Drawing of Astrakhan” – an Early Town Plan of Russian Land Surveyors
The paper focuses on an 18th-century plan of Astrakhan from the collection of the Department of Manuscripts of the Library of the Academy of Sciences, which until the present escaped the attention of specialists. Specifying the date of its creation and determining its authors’ names helps establish the fact that we are dealing with the earliest presently known land-surveying town plan made by Russian specialists. This changes our notion regarding the time of the appearance of such plans, proving that they were created at least ten years earlier than historians universally believed. Close comparison demonstrates that this drawing may be viewed as a prototype-original of the engraving «Plan de la Ville d`Astracan» from the five-volume «Le petit atlas maritime…», created by J.N. Bellin – "one of the great cartographers of the Enlightenment”, "the most important French cartographer of the period when France was the greatest colonial power”. This work was published by the French naval ministry in Paris in 1764. The author traces the rout that the Russian drawing followed before appearing in the French naval atlas. The paper studies the identified, dated and attributed Russian drawing and the French engraving in connection with "Peter’s plan of Moscow”.
The Lost Wooden Church of the Residence of the Rostov Bishops in the Village Shestakovo
The work analyzes the information, given in the 1701 Inventory of the Rostov Bishops’ house, concerning the lost wooden Church of St. John the Baptist in the metropolitan’s residence in the village Shestakovo. The description of this edifice, which was commissioned by Iona, Metropolitan of Rostov, gives a certain idea of a sphere of his artistic activities which has been practically unknown – wooden architecture.
Architecture and Characteristic Features of Wooden Chapels of the Vodlozero Area
In the Pudozh District of Karelia, on the shores and islands of Lake Vodlozero a substantial number of wooden chapels, dating to the 18th and 19th centuries, has come down to us. The paper tells about the architecture and the history of construction of Vodlozero chapels, stressing their specific features. The mentioned constructions, taken as a group, give a relatively full picture of local architectural traditions that formed in the region. Vodlozero wooden architecture, owing to the fact that these lands were remote and isolated, preserved archaic traits longer than elsewhere.
Maciel Sanchez L.K.
Architectural Development of Siberia in the Early 18th Century
In 1699-1714 the state financed extensive stone construction, which was conducted by numerous masters from Moscow, Yaroslavl, Solikamsk, Tobolsk, etc. in more than a dozen Siberian towns. In Verkhoturiye, Dalmatovo Monastery, Tobolsk, Tyumen, Yeniseisk, Irkutsk and Nerchinsk Monastery we can see extant stone kremlins, market centers, office buildings and churches erected in those years. Their architecture represents a fine example of the Naryshkin Style of the capital. In spite of certain archaic features, belonging to the time before Peter I’s epoch, they look original and sometimes unique, taking into account their complex composition (cross-oriented five-domed top over an octagonal base) or elaborate décor (tile compositions in the form of suns). After analyzing these constructions within the general Russian context, one may come to the conclusion that we are dealing with the most advanced architectural approaches of the time that existed outside of Moscow and its environs. The experience of these works in many ways prepared and determined the success of the grandest construction project in 18th-century Europe, which took place somewhat later – creation of St. Petersburg as the new Russian capital.
Kradin N.P., Maslennikova D.S.
Origins of Monastery Construction in the Outlying Lands of the Russian Empire (second half of the 17th – early 20th centuries)
The present paper is dedicated to different aspects of monastery construction in the Russian Far East, where such a varied and complex phenomenon as an Orthodox monastery ensemble was marked, from the early stages of its existence, by specific regional features. The authors look into the origins of monastery building in the outlands of the Russian state amidst the special diversity of events and various factors (social-political, geographical, environmental and climatic conditions), which determined the formation of the distinctive and unique school of monastery architecture in the Far Eastern region, its history beginning more than three centuries ago. The monastery complexes in the Russian Far East are viewed here as a complicated sacred-architectural construction, a multi-layered structure influenced by spiritual concepts and material requirements which had been forming for a very long period – from the second half of the 17th to the early 20th century.
Russia’s Second "Misfortune” and Efforts to Eliminate it during the Reign of Catherine II
In the reign of Catherine II the government of the Russian Empire began creating an integral structure of state roads and postal services. A number of legislative measures were worked out, aimed at improving the road network. A certain hierarchy of postal roads was set up that corresponded with the hierarchy of the settlement structure, which appeared after the introduction in 1775 of the law "Establishments for Administrating Governments”. Officials from governments’ administrations were responsible for conducting these legislative measures. Some of them, while working on the subject, came up with projects regarding new roads. The various proposals concerning the issue were published in the Proceedings of the Free Economic Society. The culture of country estates, which was developing at the time, introduced a romantic trait into the design of alleys and manor roads. The changes that took place in the sphere of road management determined a new approach towards space, which began to be perceived as something accessible. A new interest in travelling was rising, which was emerging as one of the ways of learning about the world.
The Role of I.I. Yushkov’s House in the Genesis of Moscow Classicist Houses with a Corner Rotunda
I.I. Yushkov’s House is considered to be one of the finest Moscow buildings of the epoch of mature Classicism. Historians believe that it is the first example of an edifice with a corner rotunda, a type which became widespread later. The present work aims at recreating the initial project with regard to the design of the corner rotunda. By studying similar engineering constructions and historical documents, an attempt is made to reconstruct the original plan of I.I. Yushkov’s house. It differed from the existing one because the rotunda had a domed top, which strongly alters the perception, in terms of urban space, of this Classicist architectural ensemble.
By analyzing similar planning approaches in the case of residential Parisian houses of the Enlightenment, one can accurately define the influence on the Moscow Classicist architectural School.
St. Barbara’s Church in Varvarka Street. Typology and Iconography
St. Barbara’s Church in Varvarka Street (1796-1804) is one of the most widely known Moscow churches. However, questions remain regarding the author of the project. The existing opinion that Rodion Kazakov erected the building is doubted by some specialists.
The author begins by looking into the issue of prototypes that inspired St. Barbara’s architectural iconography. Three principle constructions are being pointed out: St. Michael’s Church (1794-96) in Aleksino, the Baryshnikov estate in the Smolensk Region; a church in the Village Kuzmishchevo (1789) in the Kaluga Region; and another one in Nikolo-Prozorovskoye (1792) in the Moscow Region. All these buildings, in terms of their typology, style and composition are very close to the Moscow church. All of them, in one way or another, are connected with the activities of Matvei Kazakov. The author comes up with a hypothesis that Matvei Kazakov was possibly the creator of the Varvarka Street church.
The second part of the paper is devoted to various provincial constructions that were influenced by St. Barbara’s Church, which was very popular owing to a miraculous icon and was copied many times across Russia.
Nikolayeva M.V., Mikhailova M.B., Eskin Y.M.
New Documents regarding the Biography of Architect Giacomo Quarenghi
The work is devoted to a little-known episode in the life of Italian architect Giacomo Antonio Quarenghi, employed by the Russian government – his joining the Maltese Order in 1800. It became possible to study this issue owing to a set of documents titled "Proof of Nobleman Iakov Guarengi”, discovered in the Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts, which include the master’s birth certificate, documents concerning the genealogy of the Quarenghi Family beginning in 1303 and other materials, copies of which have arrived from Bergamo. Of particular interest is a color drawing of the family arms which was probably made by G. Quarenghi himself. At that period of his life the master was responsible for creating two religious buildings (1798-1800) in the palace of M.I. Vorontsov, vice-chancellor of the Russian Empire, in Sadovaya Street. One was an Orthodox Church of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist, and the other – a Catholic church in honor of the same saint, the so-called Maltese Chapel, which is considered to be one of the most remarkable works by Quarenghi.
Projects and Construction of Churches in the "Russian-Byzantine Style” in Bryansk Region (1840s-60s)
The article is dedicated to the "Russian-Byzantine Style” in the Bryansk region (1840s-60s). The author analyses the projects of religious buildings, the final constructions and establishes their prototypes. Some projects, created by K.A. Ton and his followers, were implemented in the Bryansk region. Among the prototypes there were different variants of five-domed churches and «ship»-line compositions with a tent-roof belfry.
Shchenkov A.S., Shchenkova O.P.
Order and Medieval Motives in the Architecture of Kitai-Gorod in the 1870s-80s
In the 1870s-1880s the turn towards some specific stylistic traits in architecture was connected with national-patriotic motives and with the intention to stress the typological or confessional functions of the construction. In the development of the Kitai-Gorod area, apart from these ideas, one may note a desire to preserve, to some extent, the stylistic integrity of substantial fragments of the existing quarters.
Regarding the Origins of the Neo-Russian Style in the Architecture of the Second Half of the 19th Century
The author of the work attempts to point out the origins of the formation of the National-Romantic trend in local architecture of the late 19th – early 20th century (the so-called Neo-Russian Style), detecting them in the stylistic development of the preceding decades. The existing hypothesis, shared by many art historians in this country, presently needs additional interpretation or, possibly, revision. They believe that the new method of treating early Russian prototypes was spontaneously born in the course of the construction of the small church in a country estate in Abramtsevo, not far from Moscow, raised after a drawing by the painter V. Vasnetsov. In particular, the present paper stresses the fact that the "official” Alexander III’s Russian style appeared at the same time as the Abramtsevo Church was built. Apart from that, there is a connection between the origin of V. Vasnetsov’s architectural work and the decorative experiments of the 1870s, which makes it possible to view him within the context of the local Romantic tradition. The latter appeared to have been finally broken in the second half of the 19th century, practically until the beginning of the Art Nouveau epoch. The whole issue, doubtless, requires further serious research.
Evolution of the Social Functions of the Territory of the Former Novo-Alekseyevski Monastery. Formation of a Center of Spiritual Enlightenment
The paper tells about the principal stages of the formation of the Alekseyevsky Monastery complex in Krasnoye Selo. The author gives axonometric reconstructions, based on archive materials, which illustrate the evolution of the monastery ensemble from 1837 to the early 20th century. The historically formed principles of developing the site are particularly interesting to study taking into account the further evolution of the religious house, revived in 2013 on the territory of the All Saints’ Church in Krasnoye Selo.
Khisamutdinov A.A., Franquen Y.
Architect V.A. Planson in Vladivostok and San Francisco
This article is devoted to the architect Vladimir Antonovich Planson (1871, Vyatka–1950, San Francisco), who in 1900-1921 constructed a number of buildings in Vladivostok which are regarded now as architectural monuments. Using materials from the architect’s personal collection, which is stored at the Museum-Archive of the Russian Culture in San Francisco, the authors tell us about Planson’s life and his creative activities, as well as about the history of the construction of a number of buildings. Previously unknown documents, taken from Planson’s archives, allow us to establish his authorship regarding some constructions, which until recently were mistakenly attributed to other architects.
The "Large Moscow” Projects (1931/1932) of German Architects: Immediate Sources, Influences, Transformation of Experience
The paper analyzes the competition projects of "Large Moscow” by the German architects E. May and K. Meyer. Central attention is given to the origins of the European architects’ aesthetic principles and their influence on the presented plans, as well as to the comparative study of the two competition projects. The article is based on research involving documentary and graphic sources, both Russian and foreign.
Ptichnikova G.A., Oleinikov P.P.
Public Space of a Soviet City in the 1930s (Projects of Stalingrad’s Squares)
The work focuses on the different aspects of those complex approaches that formed the public spaces in Soviet towns and cities of the pre-war period. The squares at that historical stage were seen as new "socialist forums”, which, by architectural and planning means, were supposed to embody the supreme type of proletarian democracy. Taking the example of the development of Stalingrad’s squares, the authors illustrate the difficulties of reconstructing historical squares and study those projects that influenced the appearance of new public spaces.