Ed. N.A. Konovalova. – Moscow, St. Petersburg: Nestor-Istoriya, 2018. – 264 p.
“TRIANON DIALOGUE”: 2018 AS THE BEGINNING OF THE CONVERSATION ABOUT CITY IN THE FUTURE. A NEW WAVE AND (OR) A NEW PARADIGM?
In the current article the main focus lies on the issue of the relationship between sculpture and architecture; in the search of their exact (median) place both in the urban environment and in the dialogue between culture and civilization in the reality of the transition from “existing to emerging”. Thehistorically legitimate sources of the 2018 ‘coincidence’ of interest in the issue of the “City of the Future”, stated in the context of the Trianon dialogue, as well as multidimensional resort to modern architectonic possibilities ofinstallation as a valuable genre of urban-planning art are shown.
Keywords: City of the Future, chronotope, culture, civilization, dialogue, architectonic art, contemporary history, urban development, installation
R. KOOLHAAS "EXODUS OR VOLUNTARY PRISONERS OF ARCHITECTURE": AN ARCHITECTURAL CONCEPT AS A DESIGN AND VISUAL SCENARIO
Koolhaas’s graduate thesis concludes the history of utopias of the 1960s and opens the way to a new understanding of architecture. This way is based on a realistic and even harsh view of the state of things in the world. Koolhaas rejects the illusions of modernism and suggests pragmatically recounting the remains of architecture that could serve as the starting material for a dialogue with a real city. The thesis follows the narrative tradition of utopias. Journalistic and cinematographic experience of the architect determines the screenplay of the project. This screenplay contains many allusions and connotations intertwined in the complex fabric of the narrative. Student Koolhaas still does not understand what modern architecture should be like, but he knows exactly what it should not be. The content of the thesis and its architectural expression are analyzed in the article. The project is still relevant, demonstrating the ideal storytelling - a format without which no architectural project can be recognized by public today.
Keywords: utopia, dystopia, city crisis, screenplay, strip, frame, metaphor
CONTEMPORARY SEMANTIC AND ARCHITECTURAL AND SPATIAL RELATIONS OF SMALL TOWNS AND VILLAGES THAT ARE PART OF A CONURBATION (RANDSTAD, NETHERLANDS)
The article is dedicated to the possibilities of interaction among small towns and villages on the example of the cities of the Netherlands that are part of the Randstad conurbation. The interconnection of cities with different roles, functions and statuses, distribution and division of activities according to the principle of complementarity form a strong and balanced structure of conurbation. The basis for the creation of such a system, in which elements play equivalent roles outside the hierarchical distribution, is the dynamics of the concept development in the architectonic-spatial and urban-planning practice of the Netherlands, starting from the 1920s. The boundaries of the contemporary understanding of such terms as agglomeration and conurbation are defined and some principles of coexistence of small towns are formed to ensure strong ties with a large city.
Keywords: conurbation, Randstad, small towns, polycentric structure, village, Netherlands
THE ARCHITECTURE OF "SOCIALIST REALISM" IN THE KALININGRAD REGION
In the first post-war decades in the Kaliningrad region (the former East Prussia), only the reconstruction and adaptation of public buildings of the German period for the needs of Soviet cities was carried out. New construction began in the late 1960s - 1970s. Local architecture developed along the lines of the general orientation of Soviet architecture, in which the next round of search for artistic forms occurred, corresponding with the theoretical positions of "socialist realism". In the conditions of remaining material remnants of the German culture, the choice of forms "national in form and socialist in content" was particularly difficult. In the images of new public buildings, the idea of the acquired territory was affirmed and consolidated as an integral part of the vast USSR. To a lesser extent the proximity of the European borders and cultural ties with the neighboring Polish People's Republic were taken into account.
Keywords: Kaliningrad region, East Prussia, adaptation, social constructions, socialist realism, artistic form
THE CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE OF SEOUL OF THE LATE 20TH - EARLY 21ST CENTURIES
The article discusses the contemporary architecture of South Korea on the example of Seoul. The author identifies the causes and characteristics of the Yeouido island development, its transformation into "the new financial center of the city», and creation of a natural ecological zone in the area of the island. The author shows some aspects determining the actual direction of development of high-rise construction in South Korea and architectural strategy developed by the architect Minsuk Cho and the Mass Studies bureau. The article gives examples of how international architects were invited to create unique objects. The article touches on the renovation of the infrastructure of depressed areas and creation of environmentally friendly zones. The article highlights the names and works of the new generation of South Korean architects, defining promising directions in the contemporary architecture.
Keywords: contemporary architecture, high-rise buildings, urban environment, Minsuk Cho South Korea, Seoul
VIRTUAL COMMUNICATIONS AS A BASIS FOR DYNAMIC INTERACTION OF THE ARCHITECTURAL OBJECT WITH THE CITY ENVIRONMENT AND THE PERSON
Under the influence of information and computer technologies there is a qualitative change in people’s life activity and ways of communicating with the world around. Today, physical architectural objects are no longer the exclusive habitat for people: personal and business interaction is successfully carried out in the common information space. Such type of communication is called People-to-People (P2P). Also, data exchange exists between devices (Machine-to-Machine, M2M). Association of the two systems and coordination of all processes in life, the nature and society becomes one of the relevant problems of architectural design. In foreign researches, this concept is called the Internet of Everything (IoE). The architecture of the contemporary history not only broadcasts information, but also perceives it from the context, comprehends and reacts to social and natural processes.
Keywords: modern architecture, media technologies, virtualization, information exchange, augmented reality, hybrid space
"PETROLEUMSCAPE" AS THE DYNAMICS OF THE CITY'S MORPHOLOGY DISPLACEMENT (AND) OR AS THE ENERGY OF THE ARCHITECTURAL FORM DEVELOPMENT
The energy crisis of the beginning of the XXI century caused the attention of researchers of the history of urban design art to the specific types of the urban landscapes. They are dynamic, fantastic urban areas, where, as a rule, unique architecture is concentrated. They are attracting the sincere interest of both professionals and city’s inhabitants since their inception. These landscapes - "petroleumscapes" - for all unusualness have a fairly logical planning structure with inherent in the city, well-developed infrastructures. At the same time, the history of the place is directly or indirectly connected with the energy business, as a result of which functionalist, planning, models seemingly far from the notion of high architectural art appear and are embodied. Special educational programs are being developed in the field of architecture and town planning; the exchange of specialists in the field of architecture, town-planning and construction is formed.
Keywords: urban landscape, reconstruction, petroleumscape, architecture
CONTEMPORARY MODELS OF URBAN RESIDENTIAL AREAS ON THE EXAMPLE OF HELSINKI (FINLAND)
Quality and comfort are playing a pivotal role in the contemporary planning organization of residential areas, the boundaries of which are now extended to the territory around the house. The article analyzes trends of housing areas of Helsinki: ecological urban settlement "Viikki", apartment-housing area "Arabianranta", apartment complexes situated on Lauttasaariand and Jatkasaariare islands illustrate the principles of comfortable living environment in the condictions of sustainable development of urban territory of the megalopolis. The analysis of the planning organization, infrastructure of transport and services, social policy of these objects reveals the approaches to the organization of humanistic environment of a livable city.
Keywords: urban residential space, residential district, neighborhood, livable city, Viikki, Arabianranta, Merenkulkijanranta, Helsinki
MARKETS ON PUBLIC SPACES AS A TOOL OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT
Markets are effective strategies for the development of cities, because they are associated with numerous planning programs and political goals, both in the area of spatial and social development of the city. In urban development programs, they are increasingly often seen as a tool for solving problems of an economic, cultural and social revival of peripheral areas. These programs aim for the development of markets on existing public open places or the creation of their new forms, such as Market Hall and mobile markets (for example, "flying market"), not having a static form. Analysis of the world experience shows that markets, like public spaces, contribute to the spatial quality of the city, improving the image of the area and stimulating the economic attractiveness and viability of the area, as well as improves social interactions between neighbors.
Keywords: open public space, markets on public space, renovation method, private and public interests, urban development, modern context of the city
URBAN FRINGE BELTS: THEORY AND PRACTICE
The article is dedicated to the concept of urban fringe belts one of the key concepts in the theory of urban morphology. The concept of urban fringe belts makes it possible to explain the complexity of the dynamics and prospects for the development of the existing peripheral areas of the city. The article presents the processes of urban fringe belts formation and types of structure transformation. Comparison of the findings in the studies of scientists from different countries and cultures allows to identify features and development characteristics of the urban fringe belts. As it is evidenced by examples of world experience, in urban planning the understanding of the urban fringe belts characteristics can be used in urban renovation projects.
Keywords: urban fringe belts, fixation line, land uses, urban renovation, reconstruction
E. Lapshina, Yu. Lihanskiy
"ARCHITECTURAL LANDSCAPES" BY JON JERDE
The actualization of the theme of nature in the concepts of modern architecture was a response to the problems of ecology. The work by the American architect Jon Jerde was an example of the creation of architectural "oases", imitating the qualitative characteristics of the natural environment in urbanized surroundings. The article contains the decoding of features of the environmental organization and the complex poetics of figurative language of "architectural landscapes" taking as an example his objects in South Korea. In Jerde’s works, participation in the general trends of architectural practice does not exclude the author's features and interpretations. These features include the convergence of the formation of the natural landscape and architecture, the proposal to create an environment without the dominance of the commercial component and the dialogue of the international and national in the language of natural metaphors.
Keywords: nature, metaphor, environmental image, Jon Jerde, South Korea
MODERN FORMS OF "URBAN GARDENING", AS NEW TYPES OF PUBLIC SPACES OF A LARGE CITY
In this article, the phenomenon of urban gardening in large cities is analyzed. The trend of "urban gardening" is explored in many interdisciplinary works by scientific teams from different countries of the world, discussed in the programs of strategic development of cities, as well as at the premises of interdisciplinary forums. Public gardens appear in the residential environment; open public spaces of large cities are rented by initiative groups of citizens for horticultural activities; the territories of municipal and commercial institutions are transformed into gardens not only for horticultural activities, but also for educational and communicative purposes. In the international urban planning, several ideas of development of urban gardening have developed, and they have different planning and functional forms. The article summarizes the experience of development and formation of urban gardening facilities in large cities. The analysis of the examples of urban gardening development shows that the contemporary forms of urban gardening can be the following: communal city gardens of initiative groups in the open public spaces of the city; neighborhood gardening in residential areas; urban gardening on parts of architectural structures (roofs, balconies), a network of urban gardens - the strategy of "green belts"; gardening lots in the structure of the city.
Keywords: community gardens, urban gardening, urban farming, neighborhood gardening, garden