Ed. N.A. Konovalova. – Moscow, St. Petersburg: Nestor-Istoriya, 2019. – 282 p.
SPACE-TIME CONCEPTS REFLECTIONS IN MODERN ARCHITECTURE
The desire to overcome the existing space-time frames has always been inherent to people, whatever ideological currents they may relate. Despite the great variety of theories, concepts, with different reliability describing the structure of space-time, their practical application into architecture is still extremely limited. Fold theory, developed by the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze in the late ХХth century, denies the existence of linear time: there is no future, no present, no past, all events are built in a single chain of continuity. If it is possible to represent time in the form of any structure, it is rather a tangled thread, where it is not possible to find either the beginning or the end. This article examines the development of ideas about space-time, the classification of time, its hypothetical properties, as well as the features of human perception. Research method — analysis of time concepts in architecture on the example of buildings designed by architects Ben van Berkel, Wang Shu, Peter Eisenman, Bei Yuming. The result of the study has showed that the concept of time reflected in architectural projects as a whole demonstrates the idea of an unstable, changeable state of the Universe.
Keywords: time, space, theory of architecture, consciousness, morphogenesis, author's self-expression, architectural concepts, perception, self-identification
PROBLEMATICS OF «TRANSLATION» IN POSTMODERNIST ARCHITECTURE THEORY
The article contains a presentation of semiotic theories as applied to the theory of architecture, namely the concept of “translation” as a communicative process in the framework of the intercultural and inter-historical process, manifested in the postmodern era. The interrelationship between architecture and language is considered within the framework of M. Fuko's theories, with an emphasis on the logic of cognition formed in the 1970–1980s. The concept, text, citation in architecture, addressing, interpretations, relations between the original and the translation, eclecticism, correlations are affected. between structuralism and poststructuralism. Analyzed are the views of M. Wigley and J. Derrida, as key to the theories of postmodernism and deconstructive architecture. The main problems of interlingual relations are determined on the basis of the ideas of V. Benjamin.
Keywords: postmodernism, postmodernism, poststructuralism, semiotics, eclecticism, style, modern architecture, architecture theory, translation
CONTEXTUALISM IN THE ARCHITECTURE OF NIZHNY NOVGOROD AT THE TURN OF THE XX–XXI CENTURIES
The report addresses an important theoretical problem of the interaction of tradition and innovation in modern architecture, while focusing on contextualism as a stylistic trend that emerged in Nizhny Novgorod architecture in the post-Soviet period of the 1990s, in the era of Russian postmodernism, which led to the flourishing of regional Nizhny Novgorod architectural school and led her to a leading position in Russian architecture. Contextualism in modern architecture consciously relied on the method of environmental approach, which allowed to preserve the scale of the historical center of the ancient city. For almost two decades, there were no discordant objects. The architects used the following principles of contextualism: stylistic, compositional, morphological, typological, coloristic, ornamental-decorative, figurative-symbolic, natural-landscape, etc. But it was established that in most cases contextualism operates simultaneously with different principles, uses several tricks simultaneously (one of which can be dominant), which allow you to create a harmonious interaction with the context. The report provides typical examples of Nizhny Novgorod contextualism.
Keywords: Nizhny Novgorod architecture, architecture, contextualism, postmodernism, style, environmental approach
E.А. Lapshina, Yu.I. Likhanskii
GLOBAL AND NATIONAL IN THE ARCHITECTURE OF JOHN JERDE
The activities of the American architect John Jerde (1940–2015) are global in scope, thanks to the organization of a network of international design studios. Jerde showed obvious abilities to combine creative individualities of partners, giving the idea of creating public spaces with the properties of «architectural landscapes». The formation of design studio groups on a multinational basis is used by Jerde as an impetus to the development of global concepts of modern architecture via «feeding» local cultural traditions. The results of this experiment were investigated by the authors in Asian countries on location. This made it possible to compare the perception of objects with the author's declaration of the construction concept, as well as to compare Japanese, Korean and Chinese versions of «architectural landscapes». This paper is devoted to public complexes in Taipei (Taiwan), Hong Kong and Shanghai, which are original in creating the image of the Universe on the basis of the national myth-poetics, which combined various natural phenomena.
Keywords: architecture of China, public complexes, John Jerde, global, national, nature, metaphor, symbol
MEMORY OF THE PLACE AS THE MAIN PRINCIPLE OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE EXHIBITION COMPLEX «MESSE BERLIN»
The main topic of the article is the concept of «memory of a place», which is an important associative element of collective memory. The history of development and architecture of the Messe Berlin exhibition center from the beginning of the 20th century to the present are considered. The interrelation between the foundation and the further expansion of the complex with the historical venue of traditional fairs of the first quarter of the 19th century is traced. The main stages of modernization of the fair area (1924–1926, 1930–1935, 1969–1979, 1991 — present) are identified. Concepts of the development of the Messe Berlin exhibition complex are analyzed in connection with changing political conditions and requirements, the question of a careful approach to preserving historical architectural objects, regardless of the epoch and political system during which they were erected, is touched upon.
Keywords: Berlin, Messe Berlin, exhibition, memory of place, preservation of the architectural heritage
SOCIAL HOUSING IN THE LIGHT OF THE WORLD SPORTS EVENTS
World-class sports events such as Olympic and Paralympic Games, universiades, Football World Cups, etc. have great social and economic significance. Apart from their direct sports mission they are closely linked with a large inflow of investments which accelerate development and fundamental change of the cities’ image, improvement of their infrastructure, and economics, and provide new life for the regions. Changes connected with establishing a new well-planned infrastructure ensure a long-term economic and social effect on the nationwide scale which boosts the reputation of any country. Positive changes inspired by the Games are the reasons why more and more countries compete to be the host for such events.
Keywords: Olympic Village, affordable housing, social housing
CONTEMPORARY URBAN HOUSING BASED ON SOCIAL PRINCIPLE
Abstract: Changing of demographic picture of world when family ceased to be the dominant norm, led to new forms of people community based on common interests, age and status. Strong significance to these forms is given by disappearing the natural tradition of neighbourship, the destruction of social ties and as a consequence a number of psychological problems of urban society. This crisis be overcome using such cooperatives as Coworking — working together, Coliving — sharing places of residence, Cohousing — deliberately united life. New models of urban residential areas organization of which is built on the communal principles coexistence generate completely new types of masterplan and architecture of urban housing.
Keywords: city sociology, housing sociology, neighbourship, community, cooperative, coworking, coliving, cohousing
E.V. Barchugova, N.A. Rochegova
L. KOGAN’S URBAN SOCIOLOGY
The interest in sociology of the contemporary urbanists and architects, that has come like a new wave, had its heralds. One of them is Leonid Kogan — an urbanist, sociologist and a teacher whose students are scattered around the world. The article continues the topic, that was started at the author’s previous digest “The Contemporary World’s Architecture” comprised the consideration of common views of M. Castells and V. Glazychev to the new structures’ organization of the societal life activity and an increase in the activity of local communities in response to the fall in social significance of places.
The works of the three mentioned authors are united, first of all, by the caring of the ordinary citizens’ lives. Their keen civil responsibility and anxiety on the uncontrolled globalization led them out of professional architecture field and made them urbanists, sociologists and politicians, set them at the origins of the new attitude to the city and citizens.
Keywords: urban sociology, globalization and civilization, “centrality” and “peripherality” of the urban environment
VENICE AND DOLO IN THE MODERN TOWN PLANNING OF RIVIERA DEL BRENTA SYSTEM: ARCHITECTURAL, LIGHT AND CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT, LANDMARKS AND DOMINANTS
The architectural environment of Venice and Dolo from the point of view of the interaction of landmarks, dominants, perspectives of digital and psychological navigation are analyzed in the article. The modern use of the historical sites of Venice and Dolo for various celebrations and cultural events on the backdrop of authentic interiors and architecture, saturated the various symbols and works of art, creates conditions for the further functioning of their social life and tourist attractiveness. The architectural and light environment of residential areas and the central part of Dolo is analyzed. The history and architecture of some of the buildings of Venice and Brenta’s villas as historical dominates and landmarks in the urban planning structure are considered. Holding exhibitions of installations and workshops in historical and modern spaces Dolo contributes to the formation of comfortable, safe environment and the creation of a positive emotional atmosphere of the city.
Keywords: dominant, navigation, lighting, sensory landmarks, digital technologies, psychological atmosphere, consciousness, memory
THE URBAN FRINGE BELTS DEVELOPMENT INFLUENCED BY ECONOMIC CYCLES AND MORPHOLOGICAL TRANSFORMATIONS
The urban growth is characterized by a process of cyclical development of urban fabric. This is confirmed in studies by domestic and foreign researches of the second half of the 20th century.
One of the key factors is the economic context and the situation on the land market, which provoke periods of growth or stagnation of urban development. Special attention should be paid to the period of recession in economic development. The emergence of specific territories of fringe belts is a result of recession in economic development. Urban fringe belts have distinctive parameters and lead to difficulties in their further integration into the urban fabric. The article presents a comparative analysis of urban fabric formation in different cities. The dependence of fringe belts appearance under the influence of various economic conditions is illustrated.
Keywords: urban fringe belts, economic cycles, urban morphology
MODERN MORPHOTYPES OF THE LIVING ENVIRONMENT, FORMED UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF DYNAMIC PROCESSES OF LIFE AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 21st CENTURY
At the beginning of the 21st century, the problems of social stratification, the development of housing and communal services management systems, the integration of production activities in residential structures lead to the development and emergence of new planning forms, and the modification of the morphology of residential areas. The latest planning types of planning structure of the living environment, different in content and structure, penetrate into the world practice of architecture and urban planning. The study is devoted to a review of modern urban planning practices for the formation of residential environments in the context of the city’s dynamic processes at the beginning of the 21st century. The article analyzes the morphotypes of the living environment, formed under the influence of socio-economic stratification and integration; due to the dynamics of functional processes and cultural phenomena of modern society.
Keywords: morphotype, living environment, urban planning, dynamic processes of life
SOCIO-SPATIAL TRANSFORMATION OF OPEN PUBLIC SPACES OF RESIDENTIAL AREAS UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF DYNAMIC PROCESSES OF LIVING
Today, in response to the processes of globalization, international migration, social segregation, and unequal development of a city’s peripheral areas, the value of public places in residential environment is being redefined. Public spaces are increasingly as a tool for economic and social revival of peripheral areas. Their nature and spatial structure is determined by the socio-economic and socio-cultural processes of developing the territories. Analysis of the world experience in the modernization of existing and creation of new public spaces of residential areas can be highlighted their morphological types, formed under the influence of dynamic processes of living.
Keywords: public spaces of residential areas, social and spatial transformation of public spaces, economic strengthening of a residential area, planning and management
TRENDS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONTEMPORARY LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
Due to pollution, reduction and impoverishment of the natural environment in the developed world in recent decades, the importance of landscape architecture and design has increased significantly. In recent years, there have been many imaginatively bright and innovative in their techniques and technology gardens that demonstrate a variety of approaches and techniques. Regular gardens of the West and the East and even cropped greens have become popular again, the aesthetics of Victorian landscape gardens, the experience of Chinese and Japanese gardens, with their attention to materials and textures, to the use of stone and water are in demand. In addition to the use of techniques of the past, in landscape art there is a tendency to Frank artificiality, to create temporary installations, and the desire to simulate the natural landscape. The turn of the Millennium was marked by the emergence of unique gardens-symbols aimed at visualizing historical, scientific or philosophical ideas.
Keywords: 20th – 21st centuries gardens, plasticity of the ground, vertical beautification, new perennials, renovation of anthropogenic landscape, gardens of symbols, topiary art
PARK “ZARYADIE” AS A NEW ARCHITECTURAL AND LANDSCAPE REALITY IN MOSCOW
The article describes the architectural landscape experiment in the historical center of Moscow. The district Zaryadie mentioned from the 12th century, has a rich history. Dynamic changes took place here in the 20th century, when the historical buildings were demolished and several large-scale architectural projects were been attempted to implement on this territory. As a result, by 2010 the territory turned into a wasteland in the center of the city. By September 2017, an architectural and landscape park was created at the site according to the project of the American company Diller Scofidio + Renfro that won the competition. The park has an artificial relief in which buildings of various cultural purposes are integrated. The park has already bestowed several international awards.
Keywords: landscape architecture, modern urbanism, Zaryadye Park, Moscow
ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE AS A DRIVE TO GENERATE DESIGN OPTIONS IN EARLY URBAN DESIGN STAGE: A PARAMETRIC MODEL DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK
Previous studies have demonstrated that it is possible to utilize parametric model for urban design tasks. There were also attempts to include environmental performances in parametric urban design models. However, environmental performances were only treated as outputs of parametric models in these studies. The feasibility of treating the performances as inputs has not been revealed yet. As a result, the primary objective of this study is to develop a model development framework which can aid the development of parametric urban design models embracing environmental performances as inputs. The development of a parametric model for green open space design was utilized as a case study to demonstrate how this framework can be applied.
Keywords: parametric urban design, environmental performance, parametric design model