Ed. N.A. Konovalova. – St. Petersburg: Nestor-Istoriya, 2016. – 352 p.
CONTEMPORARY FORMS OF DIALOGUE BETWEEN THE IMAGE AND THE IDEA IN ARCHITECTURE MIRRORED BY EXPO MILANO-2015
The universal categories of historical philosophy proposed by A.F. Losev make it possible to identify the regular trends that form the way (method) of professional thinking and activity in architecture resulting in the acquisition of the New. This way of creative work would become a real renaissance, provided that the author in committed to excellence under any existing circumstances. It manifests itself through the dialogue of the artistic image and the intellectual idea of the prospective piece of work.
Splitting of the attitude to the New into two flows is fully descriptive of the segregation of professional interests and value orientation. On one hand, they are implemented deep inside the mass culture, on the other hand - within the logic of the author’s personal attitude to the emerging of the New in contemporary architecture. In the article, the problem is illustrated by the examples of contemporary architecture in Moscow, which are benchmarked against the solutions proposed at EXPO 2015 in Milan.
Keywords: architecture, architectural thinking, the New, Renaissance, pursue of perfection, mass vs intellectual culture, EXPO 2015
FOOD FOR SIGHT AND THOUGHT. ARCHITECTURAL RESULTS OF EXPO-2015
The Universal Exposition held in 2015 in Milan continued the ecological trend of recent Expos. The theme “Feeding the Planet” gave an impulse to a discussion of the problem of conservation of natural resources and the environment. This is why most countries chose floral motifs in the decoration of their pavilions. The article analyses the most important trends and approaches of different countries to the creation of a concept for the national pavilion. The logic of ideas and the use of artistic devices is traced for every country in the context of their participation in the recent Universal Expositions: Expo-2010, Expo-2005 and Expo-2000.
Keywords: Universal Exposition, Architectural Shaping, National Traditions, EXPO 2015
SOME MORPHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE
The article analyzes the problems and challenges of modern architecture, synthesizing scientific and technological achievements. The mathematical constants as a certain set of laws that constrain and guide morphogenesis lay the foundation of the diversity of modern architecture. Conceptual evidence of modern interdisciplinary science allows us to speak about convergence of morphogenesis in living and inanimate nature and architecture. Computer calculations and rendering make it possible to find stable geometric characteristics and functionally optimized design.
Keywords: architectural shaping, natural morphogenesis, self-organization, computer modeling, spatial partitioning, virtual architecture, innovative architecture
CONFUCIUS PLATONIZED: DEEP STRUCTURE OF THE DOMINANT ARCHITECTURAL TYPE
Since the middle of the first decade of 2000s a renewed once somewhat lost as it seems interest in type and typology in architecture coming back almost as a surprise. Coincidentally enough, Architectural Association School of Architecture in London stands out as a centre for carrying out these specifically updated typological studies in architecture and urbanism. However, the immediate results of those studies mainly find their adaptation in architectural practice in Southeast Asia and China, in spite of some attempts to promulgate and disseminate them throughout Europe and the United States. The coupling of relatively Platonic and Confucian, in metaphorical sense, ideologies that accompanies the realization of the new typological ideas in design and construction processes bound to different interpretation of the idea of commonweal in the West and East, bringing forth certain theoretical and critical discrepancies over current apprehension and treatment of type and typology in architecture. The examination of the main postulates of this new move called by its spearheads and their adepts as “urban typology” would perhaps help to bring to light some causes of these phenomena.
Keywords: Architectural Association, Confucius, deep structure, developmental city, dominant type, fourth typology, history of typological thought in architecture, Plato, Serie Architects, series, seriality, Singapore, type, typology, urban typology
THE MAIN PROCESSES IN THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE MODERN VILLAGE
The article discusses the toots of architecture, applicable in rural areas for their sustainable conservation and development. As the main directions are determined, the recovery of production and the creation of nearby residential units for young families and professionals. Analyzes the characteristics of the first pilot settlements with one-and two story houses and new building types. The advantages of selection within district municipalities – districts responsible for all settlements in their territory.
Refers to the individualization of the appearance of the village due to the diversity of spatial solutions and use local amenities. Means of deterrence of migration from the rural areas are called the land, traditions and architecture.
Keywords: architecture of the village, low-rise buildings, residential complexes, industrial complexes
LE CORBUSIER. THE MASTER’S LESSONS
The article offers the author’s opinion on Le Corbusier’s architecture and discusses the importance and urgency of the great master’s ideas in the today’s world. The article thoroughly reviews the basic principles of Le Corbusier’s works: a new type of dwelling – the “villenblocks”; the first major urban planning project, the “Ville Radieuse”, a new measurement system “Modulor”, which attracted the attention of the whole world in 1960-70s; the “Unité d'Habitation” in Marseilles, which for many years was considered one of the best pieces of architecture of the 20th century and hasn’t lost its importance today. Analyzed are such famous buildings as Villa Savoy, and the Ronchamp chapel. A special attention is paid to the Chandigarh project, a simple and logical structure of which defined the principles of urban planning for many decades.
Keywords: Le Corbusier, spatial organization in contemporary architecture, plasticity of space, spatial perception, new type of dwelling
THE HERITAGE OF RUSSIAN AVANT-GARDE: ARCHITECTURAL AND SPIRITUAL TRADITIONS
The pioneer works of the leaders of Russian avant-garde display certain principles of formation and space organization linking them with the traditional wooden architecture of the past centuries. This relationship can be traced in the ideological and religious symbolism of architectural concepts and themes. The article takes up the cases of Konstantin Melnikov’s pavilion at the Paris International Expo1925, Ivan Leonidov’s two projects - the Lenin Institute and the Palace of Culture, as well as design projects of NARCOMTYAZHPROM complex (the Building of the People's Commissariat for Heavy Industry) submitted to the contest by both mentioned architects in 1934.
Keywords: Konstantin Melnikov, Ivan Leonidov, NARCOMTYAZHPROM competition project 1934, the principles of formation and space organization, composition, traditional wooden architecture
MA YANSONG’S TRADITIONAL CONCEPT OF “MOUNTAINS AND WATER”
The City of Mountain and Water concept proposed by the Chinese architect Ma Yansong is a perfect image of future cities existence. The idea of Mountain and Water goes back to traditional beliefs of China with Yin and Yang as a philosophical principle of universal harmony. In this type of cities, a dialog between human and nature will come out on top, where natural forms could be recreated by architecture itself. The harmony of mountain and water in not just beautiful landscape, it is an expression of harmony of the whole world.
Keywords: environmentally friendly architecture, city of mountain and water, China, ancient philosophical concepts
TRANSFORMATION OF TOWN PLANNING AND ARCHITECTURE OF CONTEMPORARY TEHRAN
The scientific article is dedicated to the features of contemporary Tehran development both in the field of the city planning and architecture. Great alterations have been made in the contemporary history of the Iran capital city, but despite political regime changes, Tehran successfully continues its development which is especially vividly seen during the last decades. In the sphere of the urban planning, the authorities try to solve old problems, such as planning transport infrastructure of the city, thus reducing the air pollution.
In Tehran, a set of architectural bureaus are functioning. Many of them are carrying out the projects, whose fame goes far beyond the country. In the center of Tehran there appeared Vali-Asr mosque which stuns with its architectural shape and novelty. However even the conservative residents of the capital city have accepted new ideas kindly. Good number of other projects many of which are realized vividly demonstrate both individual skills and high level of collective work in the architectural companies which are keeping up to date and sometimes even running forward.
Keywords: contemporary architecture of the East, architecture of Iran, Tehran, Kamran Diba, "Fluid Motion Architects", "Mellat Park", Vali-Asr mosque
CURRENT TRENDS IN THE WOODEN RELIGIOUS ARCHITECTURE OF KOSTROMA OBLAST
Some characteristic regional features of religious architecture of the Kostroma region can be found in the contemporary architecture. Basically, it is a consequence of the orientation of the architect to a specific sample remaining in the original or in the visual sources. Today’s attempts to understand and penetrate into the logic of wooden architecture never reached the scale of a trend. However, this suggests that the tradition of the new church construction will be in a certain interaction with the old one.
Keywords: wooden architecture, religious architecture, interpretation of cultural heritage in architecture
MAREK BUDZYŃSKI’S CHURCH PROJECT: TRADITION AND CONTEMPORANEITY
The author touches upon the problems of modern church architecture and questions of interaction of tradition and innovation generally on the example of the project of the Divine Providence church complex by Polish architect Marek Budzyński. Today we can observe the increasing polarization of the frozen classical language, gravitating to absolute landmarks, and a dynamic "modern" language, which is based on the subjective, individual, relative. In his works, Budzynski aims to overcome this unnatural polarization and clearly demonstrates the ability of their organic interaction, creative dialogue and mutual enrichment equally for church and secular architecture.
Keywords: Marek Budzyński’s architecture, contemporary church building, liberty and tradition in religious art
ADAPTIVE MECHANISMS OF URBAN MORPHOLOGY IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION
The article examines the characteristics of hybridization as an urban morphology mechanism in the conditions of cultural globalization. In the contemporary urban planning practice, morphology adaptation mechanisms of city development are designed to mitigate fluctuations of other cultures and the interweaving “global” in a current identical environment.
Among these practices the author identifies urban hybridization, which means an interlacing of various forms, elements or parts. The connection the “local” with the “global” in the different combinations creates polymorphism of urban structures. The mix of functional and spatial characteristics creates “urban hybrids”. Consequently, the typology of urban development is complicated and evolving. These new objects are transcultural spaces, “mix-used” complexes, transit oriented development (TOD), multifunctional territories created by landscape urbanism. In conclusion, the article reveals trends of urban hybridization.
Keywords: hybridization, the urban morphology, urban hybrids, architecture, cultural globalization
NEW INVERSIONS OF THE CONCEPTS OF RESIDENTIAL PLANNING UNITS
In the beginning of the twenty-first century, the physical degradation and social conflicts in architectural and spatial living environment call for scientific criticism, initiate the search for solutions of "advanced" basic planning of residential units. The world’s urban planning practice is penetrated by the latest inversions of traditional ideas of formation of residential environment: mircodistrict, neighborhood, community, etc. For example, the ideas of developing a flexible, sustainable neighborhood, a TOD neighborhood, concepts urban-villages, models of segregated residential formations – "gated communities” with the fixed idea of a participatory district, and other inversions. The article is based on the examples of modern residential planning units and formulates the vectors of formation of their new interpretations. Radical concepts require comprehensive analysis and balanced assessment.
Keywords: residential planning units, mircodistrict, neighborhood, community
ECOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO THE DESIGN OF THE CITY IN THE TRANSITION TO A NETWORK SOCIETY
Starting from the 20th century, the ecological problems of civilization have never lost their relevance. Solution methods are limited to a one-sided view of the situation, which makes it impossible to radically change it. Taking into account the context of transformation of systems of knowledge and the transition to a new type of network society gives us the opportunity to rethink the very mode of human existence, a direct reflection of which is the city. The network society seeks to distribute knowledge horizontally. It is a reason for the actualization of environmental issues of the city and, at the same time, a way to resolve them.
Keywords: ecological issues, environmental monitoring, eco-settlement, eco-activism
CONTEMPORARY FRAMEWORK OF HOUSING FOR MULTIFUNCTIONAL TERRITORIES OF FORMER INDUSTRIAL ZONES
The general tendency to reconstruct Moscow industrial estate consists in transforming them into multifunctional territories, where the residential function is one of the major instruments of shaping the environment. In this connection, the question arises about the purposive choice of typology and architectural and planning solutions for housing, which is embedded in the structure of multifunctional territories.
The present article considers the types of housing, which has originated in the new economic conditions. They are the apartments, lofts, apart-hotels, condo apart-hotels. Nowadays, these types of housing already exist de facto, but legally are considered residential buildings. They are developing and occupying one third of the market in the newly built residential quarters of the capital. The article represents the architectural typology of the buildings with the residential function as preliminary results of the research of housing of the multifunctional territories, which has been carried out on the basis of different types of “residential-cells”
Keywords: reconstruction of industrial estate, typology for housing, “residential-cell” types
FORMING OF EQUESTRIAN COMPLEX ARCHITECTURE
The article describes and proposes design methods for the new types of equestrian complexes – the therapeutic riding center, horse riding center, horse theatre, equestrian tourist center and equestrian club with an integrated veterinary clinic. These new types of equestrian complexes can no longer be treated as agricultural or sports facilities only. Such functions such as entertainment, demonstration or recreation require considering these objects as public buildings, and thus, a reconsideration of existing regulations is needed. With the new methods of training and rehabilitation of horses, a new group of premises has appeared, which also requires introducing new codes and changes to the existing codes.
Keywords: equestrian complex architecture, typology, space-planning decisions for equestrian complexes
CYBERTOPIA. FUTURE OF THE ARCHITECTURAL SPACE. DEATH OF ANALOGOUS CITIES
The spatial structure of the city is made of fairy-tales. The spaces of these “fairy-tales” have a large number of physical and mechanical laws, which are alien to the real space. The ability to fly, or move from one planet to another, or to pass through the walls during system bugs makes the city more complicated. The cyberspace is filled with glitches and bugs, components of the native habitat. Glitches escaped to the real city, without having destroyed it, and created an absolutely new place – the Cybertopia.
Keywords: architecture, cybertopia, future of architectural space, death of analogous cities