Ed. N.A. Konovalova. – Moscow, St. Petersburg: Nestor-Istoriya, 2016. – 224 p.
MODERNISM AS AN ABSOLUTIZATION OF THE TRADITION
The article looks at the problem of connections between the 20th century Modern movement (Modernism) and the architectural and urban-planning principals and goals that are implanted into the traditional culture. The author traces these connections and interprets the phenomenon of Modernism not as an alternative to the Traditionalism (or counter-tradition, as I.O. Bembel puts it) but as a passionate urge towards the real-world implementation of the elevated theoretical ideals that were considered unattainable before. The transformation of the world via architecture really happened, it captivated many people and fed their pride; however, the flow of time went on and led to disappointment, which should result in turning back to the natural, i.e. traditional way of architectural development.
Keywords: architecture, urban planning, modernism, tradition, ideal, revolution, evolution, continuity
COLOUR IN THE CONCEPTS OF CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE
The article looks at the examples of the use of colour in the contemporary architecture. As an instrument for analysis, the author offers a metaphor of colour that can indicate the symptomatology of changes in the colour culture and the signs of emerging of a new colour harmonies. The author finds out that the uniqueness of the contemporary professional colour culture manifests itself in the diversity of strategies of composition of metaphors of colour and shape plastic, novelty and diversity of interpretations of sensory experience in metaphors of colour.
Keywords: contemporary architecture, concept, metaphor, colour, space, shape plastic
LANGUAGE OF ARCHITECTURAL UTOPIA OF THE 21ST CENTURY
The edge between utopian projects and real architecture turns out to be vague. Realization of a fantasy project depends on its economical validity and functional advisability and not from technical limits of constructions or materials.
The article makes endeavor to mark and to comprehend the ways and forms which touches the whole process of changes of the sets of the recognizable signs and symbols of the newest epoch architecture. Particular attention is paid to practical examples of changes of the fantasy limits of the modern architects and artists of the new century. The article considers not only the utopian projects of the buildings or complexes of the recent years but also architectural fantasies, photo-collages of architectural subjects, architectural constructions of the mass cinematograph and computer games, illustrated in particular with collages of Beomsik Won (Korea) and fantasy graphics of Arthur Skijali-Weiss (Russia), as well as with materials of eVolo magazine of the recent years.
Keywords: architectural utopia, XXI century, language of architecture, signs and symbols, graphical fantasy, collage, computer games, innovative technologies, mass and intellectual culture, models of ideal future
PROPERTIES OF TRANSPARENCY IN THE CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE OF JAPAN
The global trend of the second half of the twentieth century brings a number of advanced category of "transparency" as the embodiment of "obscure" and "unspeakable" in architectural works. Characteristics such as the disembodied architecture, blur, lack of clear contours more clearly and vividly manifest themselves in recent decades. Reaction to the innovative of world experience was the emergence of "transparent architecture" in Japan. By the end of the twentieth century "transparency" becomes one of the leading characteristics of contemporary Japanese architecture. However, unlike the European desire to pass via a transparent architecture "vague" and "ephemeral" meaningful boundaries concept of "transparency" in Japan are completely different.
In the analysis of modern architecture in Japan found dramatic differences in the content of the concept of "transparency" in the European consciousness in Japan. If a European mentality associates "transparency" to the illusory and ephemeral, and that such qualities are laid in the image of the modern architecture of the West, in Japan "transparency" is perceived as a clear, precise, unambiguous, so "transparent architecture" gets a whole range of techniques, artistic and figuratively are sign that give a new quality architecture.
Keywords: contemporary Japanese architecture, language of architecture, transparency, “transparency” in culture.
CHARACTERISTICS OF URBAN-PLANNING CONSERVATION OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPE OF KOMAROVO SUMMERHOUSE COMMUNITY (EX-KELLOMÄKI) AT THE SHORE OF THE GULF OF FINLAND
The article distinguishes three stages of development of Komarovo summerhouse (ex- Kellomäki), founded in 1903 in the Karelian Isthmus (now Kurortny district of Saint-Petersburg): pre-revolutionary, Finnish (1917 – 1944) and Soviet (1945 – early 1990s). The uniqueness the established cultural landscape of Komarovo is universally recognized. It is the combination of the natural component of the Karelian Isthmus, material and spatial environment (pre-revolutionary summer houses and 1950s summer houses) and the memorial characteristic of the place where famous scientists and cultural workers of the second half of the 20th century used to live. Giving the official status of a sightseeing attraction to the settlement is an opportunity to provide legal protection to its cultural landscape, which is now degrading. The author discusses the urban-planning aspects of protection of the integrity of historical environment and the problems of heritage management.
Keywords: Komarovo summerhouse community, cultural landscape, sightseeing attraction, urban-planning protection, heritage management
TANG DYNASTY STYLE IN MODERN CHINESE ARCHITECTURE
In the second half of twentieth century the interest in own traditions and culture in China has been substantially improved along with public's increasing prosperity and with the rising standard of citizens' education. Traditional believes and religions began to actively spread around the country in line with reviving of the national culture. This has led to a boom in the construction of new places of worship, such as temples and monasteries. At the same time China started to rediscover Tang dynasty’s culture, which could not but influence a customer’s requirements. In the present research, an attempt has been made to analyze the process of revival of the Tang Dynasty traditions in modern architecture of China.
Keywords: China, contemporary architecture, Tang Dynasty, style, traditions
RESTORATION OF THE MONUMENTS AND THE CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE. THE CROSSINGS OF SOLUTIONS AND MEANINGS
The interaction between the restored monument and the principles and forms of the architecture of the time of restoration is analyzes in the article. The stabilization of ruins forces to one of three following solutions: complete restoration with imitation of lost forms; including into the ruin a new constructive elements, which are contrasts with ancient forms; protection of whole monument with a canopy or pavilion. The choice of the last two options leads to the interaction of the monument with the forms and spaces of modern architectural directions. It is possible to conclude that the dialogue of a monument with the forms of modern architecture is probably and is appropriate in rare cases. However, the minimizing of this interaction seems one of the most important criteria for the making af individual decision for each monument.
Keywords: restoration of the monuments of architecture, protection of the ruin, contemporary architecture
ON THE MECHANISMS OF CULTURE IN THE FORMATION OF AN INTEGRAL ARCHITECTURAL ENVIRONMENT OF CITIES
The article attempts to review the active forces that made an integrate architectural and spatial environment appear in the districts with ordinary historical housing and what made it artistically expressive. Referring to a number of 1980s academic studies dedicated to socio-cultural and aesthetic aspects of environment made it possible to name among such forces the appearing of construction orders, construction works, architectural and legislative activities. The point at issue here is the ethics of the interaction between the participants of the urban-planning process that formed historically in the context of a great multitude of small construction initiatives and actions that had to manifest themselves under the condition of tight neighbourhood and in different time.
Presently, the increase in the amounts of simultaneous construction order (state and monopolistic private) and the overall decline of culture of interactions in a complicated urban space has led to dramatic changes. The ethics and aesthetics of the work in a complicated environment disappeared, making space to complex standardized design and large-scale mass construction. In seems unnatural to use the old planning and development techniques and architectural decisions in these circumstances. Rather than that, the idea is to return to the designer’s approach to complex construction.
Keywords: density of development, artistic devices, ethics of interaction, environment, complex
QUALITY OF THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT FOR LIFE
The article is devoted to actual problem of understanding the concept of the urban environment quality. At the moment this concept have different features for each of the city dwellers and experts in different fields of knowledge includes a various and conflicting meanings. The article attempts to explain the concept of the urban environment quality and to highlight the main criteria for evaluation.
Keywords: quality of the urban environment, quality of life, living environment
FEATURES REVITALIZATION OF RIVER HARBORS IN GERMANY
This article discusses examples of reconstruction of large industrial type formations - cargo river harbors. Projects implemented in Germany and illustrate a current trend of reconstruction of industrial buildings with the change in the reconstruction of its functional purpose (the article uses the term “revitalization”). In the analysis of objects focuses on the definition of artistic techniques of revitalization and shaped the perception of the specifics of the object of revitalization in a large-scale level.
Keywords: revitalization, renovation of an industrial building, the reconstruction of the cargo harbor, Dusseldorf, Duisburg, Hamburg, Media Hafen, Innenhafen, HafenCity
THE MAIN METHODS OF MODERNIZATION OF RESIDENTIAL AREAS OF MASS BUILDING OF EAST BERLIN WITHIN "CRITICAL RECONSTRUCTION" OF HANS SHTIMMANN
The article provides a brief overview of urban areas of mass building of East Berlin built by method of industrial housing construction in 1960-1980s. Acceptances of their upgrade during "critical reconstruction" of the capital under the leadership of senator Hans Shtimmann heading the Berlin department on a construction and city development are considered. The analysis of the actions directed to increase in comfort of accommodation is carried out. The variety of possible solutions of a town-planning reorganization of areas is shown (reduction of storeys of apartment houses, complete demolition of certain buildings, the device of parks and parkings on vacant places, a reshaping of office buildings, implementation of a new construction). The results of sanitation of residential districts are summed up.
Keywords: critical reconstruction, energy efficiency, sanation, modernization, Hans Stimmann, East Berlin, panel house-building
N.A. Rochegova, E.V. Barchugova
THE CONTEMPORARY CREATIVE DESIGN AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE PRACTICE OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN ARCHITECTURAL SCHOOL
The contemporary creative design is determined both by the directives of a new paradigm, the implementation of computer technologies and by the continuity of tradition indigenously inherent to the architecture and treated today within the strive of sustainable development: economical, friendly to the nature, socially sensitive for the people needs and traditions of place.
The programs of world leading architectural schools are directed at the instruction for the new design methods based on up-to-date IT dealing with the interdisciplinary investigations and studies the ways of form creation. In MARCHI educational practice it is also made an approbation of digital methods conducted in the process of design concepts formations.
Keywords: design creativity, tools of conceptual, physical and mathematical modeling, architectural programming, BIM, higher education in architecture
Ye. S. Bundova, Yu.V. Zhorov, A.A. Ansfervald
CHARACTERISTICS OF MASTER’S COURSE STUDENTS OF DIGITAL ART IN THE FIELD OF URBAN DESIGN AND URBAN PLANNING
The article describes the option to adapt the Master's program in the field of digital art for urban planning graduate specialization in the Siberian Federal University. As an example the work of the master of the first year of study on the topic "The reorganization of the historic city center for convenient pedestrian traffic (on the example of Krasnoyarsk)" in anticipation of XXIX Winter Universiade, which will take place in Krasnoyarsk in 2019.
Keywords: design, digital art, master's program, urban planning, pedestrian environment, design research