Ed. N.A. Konovalova. – Moscow, St. Petersburg: Nestor-Istoriya, 2017. – 272 p.
URBAN PUBLIC SPACES: MODERN TRENDS OF ARCHITECTURAL AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT
The article is devoted to the study of modern trends of architectural and urban development of urban public spaces, caused by the realities of social life. Public spaces - squares, parks, embankments, pedestrian areas - are being studied from the point of view of their functioning as socio-cultural structures, places of communication, exchanges and interactions. The study of works devoted to the sociology of the modern city made it possible to determine the factors and participants ("actors") that influence the processes of changes and transformations of urban public spaces.
Based on the analysis of domestic and foreign experience, the author revealed new forms of public spaces of the modern city that arose in the context of socio-cultural changes in the society of the 21st century. These include spaces of informal activity, art space, transit oriented development (TOD), POPOS zones, mixed zones, etc.
Keywords: urban public spaces, private-public open spaces, transit-oriented areas, hybrid spaces
MODERN TENDENCIES OF FORMATION OF IMAGE OF THE RUSSIAN INDUSTRIAL CITY
Modern socio-humanitarian and applied science have accumulated sufficient experience related to the methodology and methods of research of visual image of the city. Generalization of this experience, highlight key issues, critical analysis will form the methodology for analysis of visual images of a specific Russian cities in a fairly narrow segment of the city's image - his image. The text discusses some issues of transformation and development of the components of the visual structure of the modern large city in a changing humanitarian components that directly determine the Foundation of the life of urban society in the architectural and spatial shell developed by architects.
Keywords: urban environment, city's image, the image of the city
"INVISIBLE CITIES" – BETWEEN FANTASY AND REALITY
The article is devoted to the project-homonyms "Invisible cities": 1. The book of Italo Calvino, which became a classic of postmodernism, 2. Documentary project on Russian monotowns, the study of monotown as a social and cultural phenomenon in Russia. In Russia there are 1112 cities, of which 319 are single-industry cities. Monocities are the main part of the industrial province, in which more than 14 million people live, and which becomes known only after social upheavals. Monotowns have always been, including in other countries. The peculiarity and uniqueness of Soviet mono-cities was their scale: they were home to about 10% of the country's population. The purpose of the social project "Invisible Cities" is to make the cities of the industrial province "visible" to a wide audience. The article gives a brief history of the appearance of single-industry towns, gives an analysis of various programs for the development of single-industry towns.
Keywords: monocity, Invisible cities, industrial province
MODERN ARCHITECTURAL LIGHT ENVIRONMENT OF LISBON
The article describes the formation of the central historical town- and light-planning structure of Lisbon. Objects of modern light architecture of the Park of Nations in the eastern part of the city are presented. The pronounced incline and riverbed of the Tagus River in the historical environment, the holding of major international events and exhibitions, the process of creating the agglomeration of the Great Lisbon, the transformation of functional and administrative specialization have been affected on the features of the city's architectural and lighting environment. The main compositional methods and means of illumination in the historical and modern environment of Lisbon are studied. It correspond to European trends in the application of new light sources, the creation of light composition and tectonics, the formation of a comfortable and safe night environment, and the matching of lighting parameters in pedestrian spaces.
Keywords: pedestrian accessibility, city building structure, light architecture, illuminance, brightness contrast, light modelling effect, New Urbanism
TRANSFORMATION OF PUBLIC SPACES OF CENTRALIZED URBAN PLANNING IN A MODERN CONTEXT
The public spaces formed as a result of centralized urban planning activity are very typical for Russia and CMEA countries, as well as for the countries of totalitarian regimes. Changing socio-economic and political conditions have led to a rethinking of the appearance and value of public open spaces in the city. Comparative analysis of the urban open spaces of Russian Siberian and German cities give reason to assume that transformation of public open spaces of modern cities depends upon the processes of sustainable progress of the small and medium-sized businesses and increasing social public activity.
Keywords: open public space, public space of centralized urban planning, renovation, renovation method, private and public interests, transformation of public spaces, modern context of the city
FROM THE IDEAS OF URBAN GARDENING TO THE CONCEPT OF AGRARIAN URBANISM
In the context of the world's desire for sustainable development and increasing environmental literacy among the population, the tendency of integrating agrarian elements into an urbanized environment is becoming increasingly important.
The report explores the development of world experience of urban gardening from the source of food security, to an important tool of social rapprochement and environmental education. The typology of agro-urban objects is revealed depending on the spatial arrangement and functional saturation. Also considered is the evolutionary culmination of this phenomenon - the creation of the concept of agrarian urbanism, where agricultural production acts as a formative element of the urban structure and an integral part of the way of life of citizens.
Keywords: urban gardening, agrarian urbanism, urban kitchen gardens, community gardens, urban environment
ON SOME TRENDS IN MODERN IMAGE BUILDING IN MOSCOW, ST. PETERSBURG AND VLADIVOSTOK
The article examines the trends in the development of image building of the most rapidly changing cities during the globalization of recent years – Moscow, St. Petersburg and Vladivostok, as unique growth points on the territory of Russia. Using image examples of notable business, residential and public buildings and centers (“Moscow-City”, “Lakhta-Center”, “Marine Façade”), as well as the developing transport infrastructure (Moscow Central Ring, Western High-Speed Diameter and the Dam of St. Petersburg, the Golden Bridge and the Russian Bridge of Vladivostok), an attempt is made to comprehend the processes of transformation of the historical and modern urban space of megacities and cities, actively striving for the future. It is stated that at modern engineering solutions of existing and creating facilities it is realy necessary to work seriously over the improvement of their architectural appearance.
Keywords: image building, Moscow, St. Petersburg, Vladivostok, bridges, high-rise buildings
BELTLINE TRAIL IN ATLANTA, USA. RECONSTRUCTING OUTDATED TRANSPORT CORRIDORS FOR GAINING DEVELOPMENT OF SURROUNDING AREAS
The article discusses the project of Atlanta Beltline — recreational pedestrian route constructed at the place of previously famous railway. The aim is to analyze the project and its implementation process and provide evaluation of social and economic effects of railway corridor reconstruction. Possible negative outcomes, such as gentrification or social and racial discrimination, are also to be analyzed.
Keywords: reconstruction, marginal urban territories, railway, recreational route.
MAINTAIN OF CULTURAL HERITAGE AND TRADITIONS OF UAE IN MODERN ARCHITECTURE OF MUSEUMS OF SAADIYAT ISLAND
The article gives a brief overview and analysis of the current Abu Dhabi’s architecture related with revival of traditions trend, the example of the architecture of Saadiyat Island museums.
The dynamics of the Arab Emirates architecture, firmly connected with the general economic recovery, took place the country at the end of XX- beginning of XXI centuries. During this period, there was a practice of attraction famous foreign architects, using new materials, and computer technology and construction innovations in architecture.
The beginning of a new era marked change of construction activities and priorities in the capital, where the urgent need of creating cultural spaces, changed the active construction of hotels and offices. Realizing the importance for further economic development of Abu Dhabi, full participation in the global cultural and artistic space, the government deploys an ambitious policy of building mega museum complex in the Culture District of Saadiyat Island.
Keywords: architecture of Abu Dhabi, regional traditions, cultural heritage, modern architecture of Arab Emirates, Louvre Abu Dhabi, Guggenheim Abu Dhabi, preservation of identity
PAPER IN JAPANESE ARCHITECTURE: CONNECTION BETWEEN ANCIENT TRADITIONS AND THE LATEST EXPERIMENTS
In medieval Japan paper played a very important role. It was used in all areas of life and of course in architecture. The Japanese borrowed a method of making paper from China, have revealed its unexpected properties, gave to the paper the qualities, which are not typical for it at all (in the European sense). The strength which is great in hand-crafted Japanese paper contributed to the growth of its popularity and made the experiments for using it in modern construction began. Contemporary Japanese architects prefer the paper to create a more vivid artistic image of a work or cheaper and more durable structures. Architect Shigeru Ban creates cylinders of pressed cardboard, which have water, heat, and seismic resistance. In addition, the paper structures of the Ban are much cheaper, but stronger and more stable than, for example, wood. All this determines the future of paper architecture as a quite promising construction industry.
Keywords: contemporary Japanese architecture, paper in architecture, Shigeru Ban, national traditions
TO THE QUESTION OF RUSSIAN URBAN PLANNING WITHIN THE ANGLOPHONE TRADITION OF THE SECOND PART OF THE 20TH CENTURY
The attempt of analyzes of the few tendencies of Russian urban studies of foreign authors primarily from the point of relative spheres of knowledge had been made in the issue. Same cases of Russian research using are considered in the article.
Keywords: Anglophone tradition, history of Russian urban design and planning
THE PRIORITIES IN THE FORMATION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF A COMFORTABLE ENVIRONMENT OF RURAL SETTLEMENTS
There are considered problems of forming in rural areas the worthy environment of dwelling. The article analyzes results of Russian competition “For high achievements in the field of sustainable development of rural areas” in the nominations “Effective management of rural development at the municipal level” and ”Creating a comfortable living environment in rural areas”. 9 considered urban planning entities, including the area Tomskaja Region, 4 municipal districts, 2 rural settlements, 2 economy. Also revealed are priorities in choosing the projects of apartment blocks and public buildings.
Keywords: problems of rural areas, architecture – town building factors, rural municipal education, local self-government, complex building, dwelling, social infrastructure
MUSEUM ARCHITECTURE IN THE URBAN CONTEXT
Since the second half of the 20th century museums have experienced great transformation. Increased level of openness as to the society as to the city predicts development of the new scenario of activity and specific planning structure. Deep penetration into the surrounding, ideological and physical spread on big territories around the city, high level of interactivity have contributed to creating of new urban structures – museum quarters and other museum-like structures. The purpose of research is to study the interaction between the museum and the city: from the relatively autonomous models to diffuse infusion museum into the urban spaces.
A new trend in the development of modern museums is the increase in the number of so-called ensemble or environmental museums created on the basis of landmarks, which are the most visited among the total number of museums.
These cultural complexes, representing the urban art environment, became part of the public center of the city and set new tasks for architectural and town-planning development. From the architecture of the museum-temple to the new look of the "museum as a city" – this is the transformation of modern museum architecture. The paper analyzes Russian and foreign examples of spatial forms of exhibiting objects of cultural heritage and art.
Keywords: architecture, museum, museum quarters, environmental museum, urban renovation
MEMORIAL AND MUSEUM COMPLEXES: MOVEMENT TOWARDS LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
The article discusses the trend of imaginative and meaningful transformation of the memorial and Museum complexes from pathetic and static ensembles to open public spaces with educational and recreational meanings. Along with that the resonant components containing hidden historical and commemorative subjects are expressed by means of landscape and conceptual architecture.
Keywords: commemoration, memorial and museum complexes, integration of culture and nature, the park construction, landscapes of history