Ed. А. Yu. Kazaryan. Moscow; Saint Petersburg: Nestor-Historia Publ., 2018. 304 p.
I. A. Bondarenko
THE HUMAN BEING IN THE OUTLINES OF THE UNIVERSE. TO THE SEARCH OF THE COMMON IN THE ARCHITECTURAL TRADITION OF THE EAST AND THE WEST
The article focuses on the ancient Indian tradition of depicting the sitting figure of the primal man Purusha within the outlines of a square mandala. The longitudinal axis of the figure corresponds with the diagonal line of the square oriented from Northeast to Southwest. If the spatial diagonals duplicate the diagonals of the mandala, then the massive abutments should be located to the four sides of it, which corresponds with the veneration of the Lokapalas — the guardians of the four directions. In Europe, the tradition to orient corners and not axes to the four directions prevailed, however, their inner system mostly remained the same: the quadrangle of walls had a square or a rhombus, the diagonals of which coincided with axes. It was the place where the human figure was inscribed, as if being born, growing, spreading and forming the three-dimensional space. This indicates deep ties between the cultures of the East and the West and the productivity of their reciprocal studying.
Keywords: architecture of the universe, mandala, axes, diagonals, space and mass, anthropomorphic symbols
S. S. Vaneyan
THE STONE AND THE THEOPHANY — II: ARCHITECTURAL ASPECTS OF BIBLICAL NARRATIVE AND EXEGETICS
In tracing functional contexts and semantic effects typical of the motifs of the books of the First Testament (stones, places of sacrifice, the Ark, the Tabernacle, temples, altars, chariots etc.), we come to realise their exegetic and poetic rhetoric.
The purpose of these sequences is to build various patterns of interpreting and understanding critical situations which involve theophanies having most significant consequences or manifestations on different levels: theological, mythological, cosmological, textological, and last but not least, hermeneutical.
Because both an encounter with God and His proximity have a denouncing and critical character, their impact on erected structures often comes as a catastrophe — a destruction or disruption of an established order, crucial for building phenomena.
A textual structure makes experiencing and accepting God’s Will less traumatic. However, can such a structure replace this Will?
The phenomenology of events (the arranging of Moses’ Tabernacle, the building, destroying and restoring of Solomon’s Temple) and also of various visionary ‘projects’ and descriptions (in the first place, prophetic) suggests that we should consider different types of reality, brought together on the level of Biblical discourse, which transforms problems that shaped the First Testament in the context of the New Testament.
This consideration concerns neither only alternative realities (mountain or altar, tabernacle or temple), nor exclusively alternative attitudes towards a sacred place and the Presence (Moses’ Tabernacle, Solomon’s Temple, Jezekiel’s New Temple, Ezra’s Second Temple), but also alternative textual traditions and versions (connected with Deuteronomy and Aaronides).
The experience of theophany liberates itself from the medium of objective configurations and material constructs.
This liberation happens thanks to the encounters of architectonic motifs in the text, when sometimes destructive actions free a place for ‘a new constellation’ — for a direct and final connection with God in Jesus’ mysterial (eucharistic) bodily presence.
Keywords: The First Testament, exegetics, textual architectonics, visionary experience, religious crises, a destruction and restoring of a sacral topica
V. V. Carpov
CHARLES BLANC AND JULIEN GUADET: RHETORIC AND HERMENEUTICS OF COMPOSITION, DRAWING AND COLOR
PART TWO. JULIEN GUADET. THE ELEMENTS AND THEORY OF ARCHITECTURE
Based on a comparative analysis of two treatises of the second half of the nineteenth century — Charles Blanc’s Grammaire des arts du dessin. Architecture, sculpture, peinture (1867), and Julien Guadet’s Éléments et théorie de l’architecture (1901) — as the two fundamental theoretical accounts of the courses in the visual arts and architecture at the L’École des Beaux-Arts, and in formation of academic tradition in art and architecture as a whole, it is possible to retrace, although with some reservations, certain parallels that exist between two works both in terms of their philosophical-theoretical grounds and that of a method. The reference to formal means of artistic expression and techniques in creating a work of art or architecture, that is so characteristic of the two treatises, in the presence of almost complete lack of interest in the thematic and meaningful content of the work of art in Blanc, that is in accord with somewhat indifferent attitude to the issue of style in Guadet, is focused on searching the original rationallogical rules and principles in art and architecture, through the agency of history, whether it Sacred History (Blanc) or somewhat unusual interpretation of the notion of classical (Guadet) as in some sense an eternal, time-tested historical experience and memory, e.g. structural-symbolic, essentially ontological substrate, that foreshadows an apprehension of the unconscious as a source of artistic intuition in Kantian tradition. It would be indicative, in this respect, that the detachment, following Alberti’s example, of elements of architecture and the use of the idea of composition borrowed from Alberti and Durand and put in relation to the program of building in Guadet’s theory, return through the relation of the parts to the whole, and interpretation of rhetorical canons, to hermeneutics and rhetoric in their historical formation, and in their relation to each other.
Keywords: academic tradition, Alberti, architectural education, Blanc, composition, elements, Guadet, hermeneutics, modernism, program, rhetoric, theory of architecture
L. G. Khrushkova
STUDIES OF CHRISTIAN MONUMENTS OF THE CAUCASUS AND CONTEMPORARY DISCUSSIONS
The article is dedicated to the studies of Christian monuments of the Caucasus of the second half of the 19th century and the discussion of some controversies in recently published international studies. All archaeological institutions of Russia studied the Caucasus. The main part was played by the Moscow Archaeological Society with its founder Aleksey S. Uvarov and his spouse Praskovya S. Uvarova, who took over his position after her husband’s death. In 1881, they organized the 5th regular archaeological conference in Tiflis; the Moscow Archaeological Society published the fundamental multivolume research called “The Materials on the Archaeology of the Caucasus”. Uvarova personally inspected and published dozens of monuments of church architecture. Uvarova brought many major scientists to the Caucasus studies, including the researcher of Byzantium, Nikodim P. Kondakov. The personality and achievements of Kondakov have recently become a matter of discussions. The article debates some of the ideas of Czech art historian Ivan Foletti — the ideas that fail to correspond with sources or facts. Unfortunately, in some cases, Foletti makes mistakes in citing Kondakov; in others, Foletti acts not as an objective researcher, but as a partisan political commentator. Moreover, a significant number of facts of Kondakov’s academic biography and works remained unknown to Ivan Foletti.
Keywords: Byzantium, Caucasus, Christian monuments, historiography, Moscow Archaeological Society, Praskovya S. Uvarova, Nikodim P. Kondakov, Ivan Foletti, controversial interpretations
M. Jurković, P. Krleža
“ADRIO-BYZANTINISM” AND/OR BYZANTINE INFLUENCE ON CROATIAN CULTURAL HERITAGE — A RECONSIDERATION
The term Adrio-Byzantinism was popularised in the Croatian scientific literature after the publication of the book “History of Salonitan Christianity” by the Danish architect and archaeologist Ejnar Dyggve in 19511. Since then, the term is being used in various contexts and has, with time, acquired meanings that are inconsistent with Dyggve’s original definition. We here re-examine it and propose the abandonment of the term, at least in the context of Late Antiquity. Furthermore, the term Adrio-Byzantinism is intervened with a much more complex and broader subject of the Byzantine presence/influence in the eastern Adriatic in Late Antiquity and Early middle ages. The aim of this paper is thus to reconsider the value of the term Adrio-Byzantinism and suggest it might, for the moment, be used only in the context of Byzantine influenced fresco painting of the Eastern Adriatic in 11th and 12th centuries.
Keywords: “Adrio-Byzantinism”, Salona, the Eastern Adriatic coast, Late Antique art, Byzantine art
WERE THERE “HOUSE CHURCHES”? THE CRUCIAL QUESTION ABOUT THE PLACES OF LITURGY BEFORE CONSTANTINE (1ST–3RD CENTURIES)
Our picture of Christian community development in the first three centuries is still dominated by the idea of the so-called house churches. In this view, the first christian mission, especially in the cities, had been successful among wealthy citizens: they converted to the new faith and made their city residences available for Christian gatherings. As a result, it had come within the cities to a multiple, fragmented christianity with many house-centers. This extremely popular view is very weak. It has no basis in the New Testament. The entire patristic literature of the first three centuries knows no house churches. The same negative result comes from archaeology: The only verified “house church” of Dura Europos is simply a church-buildung (domus ecclesiae), not any more a private residence. Therefore, it is not surprising that in all the cities of antiquity, including Rome, until well into the fourth century, only one place of the Eucharistic celebration can ever be found. Historically, therefore, what Ignatius of Antioch establishes at the beginning of the 2nd century is to be taken seriously: the basic principle of ecclesiology is that in a city there is always only one bishop, one altar and one Eucharistic celebration.
Keywords: early christianity, church buildings, church organization
A. Yu. Kazaryan
NEW DATA ON THE CUPOLAS OF ANI’S CHURCHES. PART FIRST. THE CATHEDRAL BY AN ARCHITECT TRDAT
The article opens the series of publications on issues related to the cupolas of the temples of Ani, the medieval capital of Armenia. The lack of sufficient factual material on these buildings, the poor condition of the domes, controversial reconstruction they have undergone and, finally, the author’s working experience in Ani and Eastern Turkey, provide relevance of such studies in the context of the revision of existing stereotypes on the development of the world history of architecture. The article is devoted to the earliest, most monumental and famous building — the
Cathedral of Ani, built by the architect Trdat in the last two decades of the 10th century. The critical analysis of the existing reconstruction of the church’s drum on the basis of knowledge about the development of Ani school and the site study of the building is made. The number of links of the blind arcade on the destroyed drum is specified and the probability of the carved ornamented frieze between the blind arcade and the cornice presence is confirmed. The frieze contained the string of large flowers, and the cornice consisted of two rows of blocks with different profiles: fragments of these elements, which were probably known to Charles Texier, who published the reconstruction of the Cathedral in 1842, have been now found by the author on the Eastern arm of the building. The creation of the tholobate by architect Trdat was a creative act and reflected the orientation of the Ani’s architectural school on the interpretation of the forms of classical antiquity and their application in the details of churches. This conclusion is connected with the analogy of the mentioned frieze to the diadem of an ancient type, as if laid to the head of the Cathedral, as well as to the celestial constellation from ancient Greek mythology, into which the crown of Ariadne has been transformed. The tholobate of the Ani Cathedral served as a model for the construction of several large monastic churches of the 13th–14th centuries.
Keywords: Armenian architecture, Ani, Bagratids, architect Trdat, reconstruction of cupola, ornamental frieze, blind arcade
V. E. Naumenko, D. V. Jozhitsa (Korziuk)
THE CHURCH ON THE MOUNTAIN ILKA IN THE DISTRICT OF MANGUP FORTRESS (SOUTH-WEST CRIMEA). ARCHITECTURAL ANALYSIS AND BULK RECONSTRUCTION OF A MONUMENT
Mangup is the largest medieval fortress from the group of “cave cities” of the South-Western Crimea. One of the most important results of the modern stage of the study of the monument is the formation of ideas about it as a center of an extensive district, on the territory of which a group of diverse architectural and archaeological objects is now known, including six medieval temple complexes. The article is devoted to the publication of the results of excavations of one of them — a roadside chapel on mountain Ilka on the southern periphery of Mangup, which dates back to the late 14th — first half of the 15th centuries. The questions of architectural composition and bulk reconstruction of the temple are considered.
The church on mountain Ilka is a one-nave one-apse chapel with rectangular naos and a horseshoe apse. The general orientation of the construction along the axis is north-west — south-east. The temple had a roof truss structure, covered with tiles. Its prominent feature is the southern entrance to the building. This compositional technique is characteristic of numerous one-nave one-apsidal churches of the 14th–15th centuries on the territory of the Southern coast of Crimea.
During the excavations inside the church, an altar throne of the “throne-table” type with one support was found. This type of altar is typical for Byzantine architecture of the 10th–11th centuries, but continues to occur on monuments of a later time.
The chapel on mount Ilka functioned for a short time and had only one construction period. Significant traces of repairs and rebuilding were not found during excavations. The final stage of the history of the temple is connected with total destruction due to a fire.
Keywords: Crimea, Mangup, principality of Theodoro, chapel, altar throne
R. G. Muradov
REGIONAL FEATURES OF THE CARAVANSARAIS IN THE KARAKUM DESERT
Medieval caravan routes from the Volga region through Khorezm and from China through Maverannahr to Iran are still traced on separate stretches in the Karakum Desert. Along these routes in the 11th — 12th centuries grew chains of caravansarais, which functioned long enough, until the perennial transcontinental trade died off in the 15th century. Some of them were examined along the old tracts from Dehistan, Nisa and Merv in two directions: to Gurganj (Kunya-Urgench) and Bukhara. The degree of their safety varies from barely noticeable ruins, according to which only the plan can be reconstructed, to fully readable volumetric structures with important constructive nodes. Only a few of them were subjected to architectural measurements and fragmented archaeological excavations. The article proposes a typological classification of these monuments, based primarily on morphological properties, that is, on the features not only of their planning, but also of the threedimensional structure. They are grouped according to the following features: an inner rectangular courtyard in the outskirts of rooms with external blind walls (with rectangular or circular outline); The presence of a high signal tower at one of the corners of the building; plastic decoration of facades with massive semi-cylinders (corrugations); two-part structure of the plan; multi-chambered castle (köşk); entrance through the axis tower. The division is purely conditional, since there is not any monument that does not combine the signs of two or even three types, as shown by specific examples. The meaning of this classification is only one: to identify those properties of caravanserais that are inherent in this region and can be considered a characteristic feature of the architecture of North Khorasan.
Keywords: Islamic architecture, caravansarai, rabat, typology, Turkmenistan, Karakum desert
V. P. Kirilko
ARCHITECTURE OF THE MOSQUES OF THE OTTOMAN CITY OF KEFE (BASED ON WRITTEN AND GRAPHIC SOURCES)
With certainty, 40 mosques can be localized. The names of 27 of them have been identified. By now only one building has survived — Mufti-Jami. Its original form has partially changed. It was a cathedral, built in 1622–1639. Disparate information about the architectural, constructive and decorative features of some of the lost mosques of the city is contained in the written, archaeographic and pictorial sources. Of exceptional value for the study of local architecture is the “Book of Travels” of the Turkish author Evlia Chelebi, who visited the Crimea in 1666–1667, as well as scientific works of the late 18th–19th centuries. In the city of Kefе there are some rare buildings that came to be, probably with the participation of the main masters of Porta. Some conventional structures with symptoms that are characteristic of provincial architecture are also known. The buildings of the first group are single and are determined by a considerable size, complex architectonics and relatively refined decoration. Among them is the most important construction of Kefе — the cathedral Biyuk-Jami, which was built by shahzade Suleiman Khan during the reign of Sanjak (before 1520), possibly by the famous architect Hodja Sinan. The second group predominates in the number of its exponents. Usually they had a prayer hall in the form of a cube in small volume, and an arrangement of the windows in three tiers and, as a rule, a closed octagonal drum with a dome on sails. The difference between the buildings within this group consisted mainly in the details. This is, first of all, a different kind of extension, the shape and number of the openings, the decorative design. The images and description of one of these mosques — the quarterly Kyshl-Jami, have been preserved. The main influence on the Muslim religious architecture in the city in the Ottoman period was the capitals’ current trend in architecture fashion and, perhaps, examples of individual buildings, about which it is still difficult to specify.
Keywords: Kaffa, Kefe, Evliya Chelebi, Hodja Sinan, Ottoman architecture, Jami, Mesjid
O. V. Linnikova
K. F. SCHINKEL’S PROJECT FOR A PALACE IN THE EMPEROR’S ESTATE OF OREANDA
The penetration of new ideas of eclectic architecture in Russia happened because of a wide cultural exchange between Russian and foreign architects. The pioneers of the “Prussian Hellenism”, the internationally recognized architects from Berlin Karl Friedrich Schinkel and Leo von Klenze played a significant role in this process.
K. F. Schinkel is one of the most important figures in the history of 19th century architecture. In his works, the architect referred to various styles: Neo-Gothic, Neo-Grec, Neo-Pompeian, and Neo-Renaissance. Schinkel’s influence on the spreading of new architectural trends in Russia was very significant. It could be noticed in the works by A. Bryullov, A. Stackenschneider, M. Bykovsky and other architects of that era. In this regard, Schinkel’s design project for the palace in Oreanda in the Crimea (1838), which is thoroughly analyzed in this article, poses a great interest for the understanding of the origin and dispersion of the ideas of eclectic architecture and, in particular, the Neo-Grec style, in Russian architectural practice of the 19th century. This work, which Schinkel valued very much and published in the form of personal colored lithographic images, was recognized by his contemporaries and is considered one of the most interesting examples of 19th century architectural drawing. Schikel’s project was rejected because of its expensiveness and immensity, and was re-imagined by a 19th century architect A. Stackenschneider. The palace, built by Stackenschneider’s project, existed up to 1882, when the building was almost entirely destroyed by a fire. As a rule, foreign studies dedicated to Schinkel’s works (J. P.Klaus, W. Szambien, C. Sahm-von Alten) never mention the building that was constructed by Stackenschneider’s project, while Russian researchers (T. A. Petrova, A. P. Palchikova, N. N. Kalinin, M. Zemlyanichenko) tend to see Stackenschneider’s project as self-sufficient, usually only mentioning the existence of Schinkel’s project. A comparative study of the two projects and their variants compelled the author to come to the conclusion that Stackenschneider’s project cannot be studied outside the context of Schinkel’s project.
Keywords: K. F. Schinkel, project of the palace in Oreanda, Neo-Grec style, A. Stackenschneider
O. S. Shurygina
THE ARCHITECTURE OF CAR GARAGES IN EUROPE AND THE USA IN THE 1920S–1930S: A VIEW FROM SOVIET RUSSIA
Interest in the Western experience of automobile infrastructure creation had existed in pre-revolutionary Russia already, but it was in special demand since the second half of the 1920s. The article contains a list and analyse of examples of designing and building garages in the West in the 1920s-1930s, well known to Soviet architects and engineers through the trips abroad and/or the publications in foreign specialized press that was available in USSR. Named list of objects was established by studying Soviet specialized periodicals and reference publications of the 1920-1930s when articles on these or some other foreign buildings were appearing on their pages. First of all, the focus is on the garages location in the street network, their layout, operation, use of building materials and technical equipment. It is important to determine which countries were at the time leaders in the field of building automobile infrastructure and influencing domestic practice. The most popular among Soviet engineers, according to a tradition that had arisen before 1917, was the German experience. Although German cars were no longer so in demand in Russia, as before, German garages were perceived by Soviet designers as samples because of its wide representation in Soviet press. Only by the mid-1930’s the situation began to change seriously: as in other areas of the economic and cultural life of the USSR, in the garage construction a vector was set for independent development.
Keywords: car, automobile infrastructure, motorism, garage, car garage, architecture of the XX century
Yu. D. Starostenko
CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT IN MODERN FOREIGN STUDIES
City Beautiful Movement — an independent trend of American urban planning the 1890–1910s. It infrequently mentioned in Russian literature about the history of urban planning. Meanwhile, City Beautiful Movement and the associated with it individual projects, including World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago (1893), the project of The National Mall in Washington, DC (1901), Plan of Chicago (1909), and etc., were researched in detail by foreign specialists. In this article, based on the publications of V. Wilson, P. Hall, etc., made attempt to characterize the main approach to the study of the City Beautiful Movement, which have developed to the present day. Two approaches to the study of motion are considered as key ones. The first assumes the study of the movement as an exclusively American phenomenon, the formation of which was associated with the American tradition of landscape parks, and development was associated with the redevelopment of American cities in the period before the Great Depression. The second proposes to consider the City Beautiful Movement as an international phenomenon that spread far beyond the United States and became the basis for projects for reconstruction of great cities around the world already in the 1930s. This article based on the analysis of these approaches to the study of this movement attempts to formulate a vision of the role of this movement in urban planning of the first half of the twentieth century. Also the article touches upon the issue of awareness by Soviet architects of the main projects of the movement and the possible impact of this movement on the Soviet town planning of the 1930s, in particular on the reconstruction of Moscow of that time.
Keywords: urban planning, city planning, City Beautiful Movement, USA, Daniel Burnham, Frederick Olmsted