Ed. А. Yu. Kazaryan. Moscow; Saint Petersburg: Nestor-Historia Publ., 2017. 296 p.
L. G. Khrushkova
THE BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE OF CHERSONESOS IN CRIMEA: HISTORY, METHODS AND OUTCOMES OF THE STUDY
The Study of the Early Byzantine Architecture of Chersonesus in the Сrimea: Progress or Dead End? The beginning of research of the early Byzantine architecture of Chersonesоs in the Crimea was considered in 1827. There are about 20 monuments known today; almost all of them were discovered in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The examination of the history of the study of this ancient town proves that the book by A. L. Yakobson (1959) is the only comprehensive study of the architecture, marble and mosaics of the site. It reveals that in the postSoviet era, the “artifact-centric” approach has prevailed: the fragments of ceramics and the coins were analyzed rather than the architecture. The meaning of the large collection of marble works from Proconnesos’ workshops is completely denied for the dating of the monuments.
Keywords: Crimea, Chersonesos in the Crimea, Byzantine architecture, basilicas, Episcopal basilica, stratigraphic method, history of researches
V. V. Carpov
ANTOINE CHRYSOSTOME QUATREMÈRE DE QUINCY: TYPE
Following the Renaissance and Classical traditions, in which natural history has been employed to explain architecture, the Neoclassical epoch has linked the evolvement of architecture to the historical development of society, by extending the impact of the laws of nature and the idea of natural evolution on the social progress. The system of laws brought on by the Enlightenment to stipulate the relationship between physical nature and human civilization that defines and controls the course of history and culture on the whole, stands as a basis for the perception of the idea of type in architecture. Grasping through historical, philosophical, artistic and methodic interpretations of the experience of preceding centuries, Antoine Chrysostome Quatremère de Quincy suggests, in Encyclopédie méthodique (1788–1825), and Dictionnaire historique d’architecture (1832), the first definition of type in the history of architecture. Evidently relying on the theories of M.-A. Laugier in architecture and J. J. Winckelmann in the history of art, he considers type as a synthetic, all-inclusive category in accordance with historic, anthropologic and scientific criteria characteristic of the time, and in connection with such notions as imitation, convention, model and character. Type is interpreted both as an instrument for artistic or architectural invention and as a descriptive and analytical tool in historical and theoretical studies and explanations of art and architecture.
Keywords: Alberti, architecture, character, convention, Laugier, model, Pantheon, primitive hut, Quatremère de Quincy, sculpture, type, Vitruvius, Winckelmann
N. V. Kozhar
PROBLEMS OF ANTIQUITY AND THE MIDDLE AGES IN THE AESTHETIC CONCEPT OF JOHANN WOLFGANG VON GOETHE
The present study contains an analysis of the main provisions of the artistic conception of Goethe, and determines his contribution to architectural theory from the end of XVIII–XIX centuries. The reasons for the change in attitude towards antiquity and the Middle Ages, reflected in the major publications of the poet, are analyzed. The article “Architecture” (1795) is analyzed first. It is shown that the poet was not only one of the first who tied together the architectural and philosophical studies, but also made a number of assumptions that anticipated modern architectural thought.
Keywords: Goethe, architectural theory, classicism, Gothic, German architecture
I. A. Bondarenko
SYMBOLISM OF THE ROMAN PANTHEON REVISITED
It may seem that by its monumental dome, the Pantheon demonstrates the ancient Romans’ adherence to the spherical model of the universe adopted by the majority of ancient philosophers. At the same time, the analysis shows that the creators of the Pantheon were limited to the erection of a hemisphere over the cylindrical belt, which includes the rotation zone of the zodiacal constellations of stars and of the seven “wandering” stars associated with the gods. The southern hemisphere thus imaginatively has been earthed. At that, the surface of the Earth is a plane. It approximately fits in with the level of the southern tropic (Capricorn). This does not meet the ancient ideas about the sphericity of the Earth. The interior of the Pantheon is a huge cave inside the mountain, the surface of which is the firmament. This image of the world mountain-sky dating back to ancient cosmological views of humanity, predetermined the construction of huts, tents, dome tent and temples and tombs. The land here is the bottom of the universe. I recall the tale of the egg, from the lower half of which originated the earth, and from the top — the sky. The Pantheon floor level obviously corresponds to the attitude of land, raised over the waters of the ocean. This leads to the conclusion that in creating a temple of all gods, the Romans did not seek to reproduce the prevailing at the time view regarding a realistic picture of the world; they only decided to create an unprecedented scale, with the imperial scale embodying consecrated authority of antiquity’s universal model of a geocentric universe.
Keywords: Roman architecture, Pantheon, dome, symbolical meaning, picture of the world
D. A. Karelin
ARCHITECTURE OF PRINCIPIA OF THE ROMAN CASTLES DURING THE TIMES OF DIOCLETIAN AND THE IMPERIAL CULT
Principia was the central and the most important building of any Roman fortress, where the chapel of standarts, genius castrorum and Roman imperial cult were situated. The aim of the article is to study the architectural peculiarities of these monuments which could be connected with the rising of the Roman imperial cult’s role in the second half of the 3rd century. Undoubtedly this process was started before the reign of Diocletian; however the most important architectural features appeared at that time. Due to this fact the main attention was given to principia in Luxor and Palmyra, which were built during the reign of Diocletian.
Keywords: principia, tetrarchy, Roman imperial cult, Diocletian, kalybe
S. V. Ayvazyan, A. G. Badishyan
CONSTRUCTION OF THE ROCKING OF TATEV’S COLUMN
The current research is devoted to this unique monument of memorial architecture of medieval Armenia. It is the so-called Gavazan (906) or swinging column of Tatev Monastery, which is characterized by its capability to rock. The article contains theoretical reasons and mathematical calculations of the rocking mechanism of the column, based on measurements done by the authors during the study of the monument in 1987 and 2015. The attempt to raise this question is the most comprehensive and conclusive study in comparison with previous ones. In consequence it has been established that the column rocks in one plane, and the parameters of rocking have been calculated. As a result, the center of gravity of the column has been determined, and new assumptions about the shape of the base of the column have been suggested.
Keywords: Tatev Monastery, memorial column, construction of rocking, khachkar
D. N. Vorobyeva
ARCHITECTURE OF THE KAILASANATHA TEMPLE IN ELLORA. SOUTH INDIAN PROTOTYPES
Kailasanatha temple in Ellora was carved out of a solid rock in the 8th century AD in Central India, by the North Indian dynasty Rashtrakutas. Besides this, it bears obvious features of the South Indian style. In its plan, architectural details, sculptural style and location of decorative motifs, one can unmistakably see clear architectural prototypes: rathas of Mamallapuram, temples of Pattadakal and Kanchipuram. However, Kailasanatha Temple is a unique creation, the only one of its kind in world architecture. Architectural features of the Dravidian style are combined with elements of the North Indian style, apparently as a result of the political history of this region. The architecture and the sculpture of the monument bear a historical imprint. Herein is a cause of complex style and grandiose scale of the ensemble.
Keywords: Ellora, Kailasanatha, Indian architecture, Dravida style, Hindu architecture
THE FUNCTION OF KULLIE IN MAPPING OUT EARLY OTTOMAN BURSA
Kullie are the Ottoman philanthropic complexes that included mosks, medrese, libraries, dervish lodges, hospitals, kitchens, baths, etc. Having all the necessary social structure, kullie became the centers of city planning and gave their names to surrounding town districts. The 1st Ottoman capital Bursa was the place where kullie turned into points of urban development. One can trace how the city purposefully expanded along the terrace of Mt. Uludag due to kullie construction. In the middle of 14th century the new Ottoman city center was marked with the Orhanie complex. Later kullie Hudavendigar and Yildirim staked out the western and eastern limits of Bursa and in turn became the centers of the new surrounding suburbs. In the 1st quarter of 15th century kullie Yeshil and Muradie that were built on the upper terrace predetermined the widening of Bursa both in the eastern and western directions.
Keywords: kulliye, mosque, religious-social complexes, town planning, Turkey, Ottoman architecture, waqf, imaret, beneficence
G. V. Shevtsova
SPACE-CONSTRUCTION LIKE ONE OF THE MAIN MARKERS OF THE GENESIS OF THE WOODEN TEMPLES
The article investigates space-construction of wooden architecture, that can be identified as the characteristic that is most resistant to temporal and stylistic changes. This fact allows us to distinguish space-construction as one of the main markers of the genesis of wooden temples (sources, ways of formation, mutual architectural influences). The term “space-construction” is understood as a coexistence of architectural shape and the construction of the wooden building. What has been mainly used here is the author’s original experience with wooden temples genesis determination, gained while researching and fulfilling practical restoration in Japan. The chief focus is on the comparative analysis of log space-constructions of Ukrainian, Russian, Western-Slavic and Trans-Caucasian sacral wooden architecture. As a result, we can shape an unusual point of view that the sources and ways of wooden temple formation have something in common in all of these areas.
Keywords: space construction, origin, wooden church, formation, interrelations between architectural traditions
ELEMENTS OF AN ORGANIC APPROACH IN THE WORKS OF MICHELANGELO AND BORROMINI
The principles of organic architecture, which officially appeared at the beginning of the 20th century, can already be found at the end of the Renaissance and in the Baroque period, especially in the works of Michelangelo and Borromini. In Michelangelo, for the first time we see a need for expressing hidden forces and streams of movement active in architecture, using such unconventional solutions as the columns deepened into the walls and the moved shape of the staircase of the Biblioteca Laurenziana. The deformation of classical elements based on the feeling of forces and movement became a key aspect of the work of Francesco Borromini. In his approach to some organic principles, such as the creation of forms based on the laws of nature, an early appearance of organic principles can be found in the growing development of individuality after Renaissance.
Keywords: organic architecture, Michelangelo, Borromini, Gaudi, Steiner, Renaissance, Baroque
J. G. Klimenko
ARCHITECTURAL TREATISES OF J.-CH. KRAFFT AS A SOURCE OF FRENCH NEOCLASSICISM (AT THE 250TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE PUBLISHER)
J.-Сh. Krafft (1764–1833) was talented architect, builder, theorist, engineer, designer and graphic artist, well known due to his publishing activity. He has published dozens of treatises about architecture and construction. Most of his work has been translated and reprinted repeatedly. Krafft acquainted his readers with the best architectural projects and constructions created in the heyday of French neoclassicism and in subsequent periods. Since many of these architectural works have been lost, the interest in publications containing their original forms is increasing. All contemporary publications about the history of French architecture of the Enlightenment have been illustrated by Krafft’s engravings. The widespread use of his treatises had a significant influence on the tastes of customers and architects. The impact of these ideas on the Russian architectural school in the period of active construction of the manors is obvious.
Keywords: french neoclassicism, Empire style, architectural treatises, Moscow classicism
A. N. Yakovlev
ROBERT DE COTTE AND RUSSIAN ARCHITECTURE OF THE 18TH CENTURY. ON THE PROBLEM OF THE PROTOTYPES FOR THE FINE ARTS ACADEMY BUILDING IN ST. PETERSBURG
The assay deals with some aspects of the activity of the French architect Robert de Cotte who was J. H. Mansard’s disciple . Some possible influences of de Cotte’s works on the process of the birth of classicism in Russia are also discussed. The author focuses on the problem of prototypes for the Fine Arts Academy building in St. Petersburg, and tries to prove that de Cotte’s project of the palace Buen Retiro was one of the such prototypes. Another building of de Cotte’s — the villa Poppelsdorf could have possibly impacted Russia as well, but it’s difficult to verify.
Keywords: classicism, rococo, France, Saint-Petersburg, de Cotte Robert, de la Motte Jean-Baptist Michael, Kokorinov Alexander Feodorovitch, Fine Arts Academy, Buen Retiro, Poppelsdorf
O. V. Linnikova
SYNTHESIS OF GOTHIC REMINISCENCES AND ELEMENTS OF INDIAN ARCHITECTURE IN THE NEO-MUGHAL STYLE IN THE VORONTSOV PALACE ARCHITECTURE
The example of the Vorontsov palace in Alupka allows us to see synthesis of Gothic reminiscences with elements of Indian architecture in the Neo-Mughal style. These are the facts that are presented to us in the article. The logical chain of the generation of Hindu style is identified in the works of Edvard Blore, such as the Alupka palace and in the works of other British architects. They are: George Dance the Younger, Humphry Repton, Samuel Pepys Cockerell, John Nash. Some examples of manor architecture in Britain utilizing the “Mughal-style” are offered well. These are the following: Hasting’s Residence in Daylesford, the farmstead Sezincote (Gloucestershire, 1804–1805) and others. The influence of some examples on the project in Alupka, that aren’t known by native art history, are considered as well. There are many picturesque images involved in the stylistic choice of E. Blore. Analysis of some cultural aspects related to the great interest on the part of English society also in Indian culture, as well as the analysis of the landscaping works of W. Hodges, T. Daniell, W. Daniell, who were the pioneers of the Indian Renaissance in England, helped to identify some painted images that influenced E. Blore’s stylistic choices at the Vorontsov Palace project.
Keywords: Palatine architecture of the Crimea, Vorontsov Palace in Alupka, eclecticism, Neo-Mughal style, neostyles
Ł. M. Sadowski
ARCHITECTURE OF QINGDAO. THE GERMAN TOWN IN CHINA (1898–1914)
The city of Qingdao was founded in 1898. It has become one of the most interesting examples of Western (German) architecture. Before 1914 Germans created a modern town with typical European infrastructure: administrative buildings, residences, tenement houses, churches, barracks. Buildings were designed by German architects, mostly in “Wilhelmine’s Style”. The teutonic, romanesque, German gothic-revival and Neo Renaissance styles recreated a kind of a “small Fatherland”. It also showed the domination of Germans on the Coast of the Yellow Sea. The city has never been destroyed, so it is one of the finest examples of “Treaty Ports” architecture in China nowadays.
Keywords: China, German architecture, Treaty Ports, colonial architecture
PALACE OF CULTURE AND SCIENCE. POLISH ASPECTS OF SOVIET STALINIST ARCHITECTURE
The article focuses on the Palace of Culture and Science, the only giant Soviet-type skyscraper of its kind built in the 1950s in East-Central Europe. It was a “gift” from the Soviet Union, which led to far reaching changes in the urban landcape of Warsaw. Nowadays, the Palace is part of Polish cultural landscape and history, the building full of inner contradictions on different semantic levels, difficult to evaluate. The article highlights the Polish input in the building process. Although the Palace was designed by Russian architects and constructed by Russian engineers and builders, the Polish contribution to the building cannot be ignored. On the one hand, we are dealing with an imported edifice which we easily identify as socialist-realist. On the other hand, the building is often perceived as “Polish”.
Keywords: Stalinist architecture, socialist realism, skyscraper, Warsaw
A. D. Barkhin
ART DECO AND HISTORICISM IN THE ARCHITECTURE OF MOSCOW HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS
Moscow high-rise buildings, as well as the Palace of Soviets, realize (or epitomize) the spirit of competition between the Soviet era exponents and the architectural achievements of the United States. Because of that, the techniques applied to the facades of Moscow skyscrapers were designed to compete not only with those used on the national heritage, but also with the ones used in the world at large, such as the style of high-rise buildings in New York City and Chicago of the 1920–1930s. The creators of the Moscow skyscrapers, basing themselves on the experience of the American Towers, first of all, in historicism, wanted to create something new and unique in a world context, and succeeded. The stepped corbels and flat pilasters of the high-rise building on Vosstania square represent decisions similar to those in the style of the U. S. skyscrapers. The post-war Soviet architecture used the order and silhouette of the Church of the Ascension in Kolomenskoye, that was beautiful and a necessary patriotic pattern. So symbiosis of different traditions — the motifs from pre-Petrine Russia and neoclassical elements, as well as ribbing and ledged skyscrapers of the 1920s — formed a style of post-war high-rise buildings.
Keywords: art deco, Moscow high-rise buildings, Stalinist Empire style, Soviet architecture of the 1930–1950s
A. V. Ivanov
VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF YEREVAN OF THE 19TH — MIDDLE 20TH CENTURIES: ENVIRONMENTAL VALUE AND A NEED FOR CONSERVATION
With the impressive losses in architectural heritage in Yerevan, the vernacular layer of the historic town is preserved on a large enough scale, mostly just by inertia. The value of local vernacular architecture lies in its authenticity, perceptible patina of time, human intervention and deep interpenetration of material and social components of the environment. Such qualities are increasingly in demand by the globalized modern individual who is usually not very tied to his/her surroundings. That is why the vernacular is vitally needed to Yerevan and must be preserved. The specifics of the conservation of this kind of heritage is an inability to do it “from above” — it can be done by its inhabitants only. The task of the municipal authorities, architects and experts is to create the organizational, legal, financial and design conditions for such conservation “from below” for the benefit of future generations of citizens.
Keywords: vernacular, city layers, urban text, values of the historic environment, creation of heritage, conservation “from below”, revitalization
A. Yu. Kazaryan
REVIEW: Christina Maranci, Vigilant Powers: Three Churches of Early Medieval Armenia (Studies in the Visual Cultures of the Middle Ages, vol. 8). Turnhout: Brepols Publishers NV, 2015. 281 p., il.