Ed. А. Yu. Kazaryan. Moscow; Saint Petersburg: Nestor-Historia Publ., 2017. 264 p.
A. Yu. Kazaryan
ANI ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE. RANGE OF ACTIVITY AND WHAT ACHIEVING HEADWAY IS BASED ON
A new attention is focused in this article to the activity of the Ani Archaeological Expedition (Ani Institute) of the Emperial Archaeological Commission in 1892–1893 and 1904–1917. The goal of the analysis is the demonstration of a variety of works conducted by Professor Nikolay Marr and his colleagues in the city of Ani and other monuments of medieval architecture of Armenia, as well as the understanding of the scientific basis and that which economic success is based on, which seems relevant after a centenary. The complex character of the activity of the Institute has included archeological discoveries and the measurement of monuments, their multitopic examination, stabilization of the conditions of the ruined buildings and museumification of more important fragments. The creation of the museum and publishing activities were the proviso of the work of the expedition. The systematization of the facts has testified to the fact that the parallel governmental and social funding afforded us a possibility to construct the organizational model of the development of the Ani Institute. This model became viable during the years of the Institute’s work; the same model can be a worthy example applied to the present day.
Keywords: Ani archaeological Institute, Archaeological Commission, Ani, Armenian architecture, Marr, Toramanian, Orbeli
I. V. Kuteinikova
THE DEVELOPMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PHOTOGRAPHY IN RUSSIAN TURKESTAN: REFLECTION OF OCCUPATIONS (1865–1920)
Early Russian colonial photography is just beginning to be explored by scholars. The author focuses on the architectural aspects of the documentary “fixation” in the works of Vasilii Vereshchagin and Samuil Dudin, two closely connected names with the phenomenon of Russian Orientalism, the ethnographic and architectural histories of the Russian Turkestan (1865–1920). Both accepted the offers to carry on the artistic and photographic chronicles, one by Konstantin von Kaufman, the first GovernorGeneral of Turkestan, other by the orientalist Nikolay I. Veselovsky. Their oeuvre reflects and articulates the particular political and scientific milieu for studying the nonRussian cultures.
Keywords: Russian Turkestan, colonial photography, architecture of the Central Asia, Vasilii Vereshchagin, Samuil Dudin
D. V. Vanyukova
AMENEMHAT I’S AND SENWOSRET I’S PYRAMID COMPLEXES: DIALOG WITH THE PAST
The paper deals with the problem of archaization in Middle Kingdom architecture of the 12th dynasty. Architects had placed fragments of earlier structures in the pyramid complex of Amenemhat I. In the case of the burial complex of Senwosret I, some stylistic features were used: its structure has close connections to the pyramid complexes of the 5th and 6th dynasties. The author discusses this reference to the Old Kingdom architectural tradition in the context of the archaic world vision and timeperception in ancient Egyptian culture after the First Intermediate Period.
Keywords: Middle Kingdom architecture, timeperception, archaization, archaic mind
I. A. Bondarenko
THE OLD-ROMAN CULT OF VESTA AND THE TRADITIONAL MEANING OF THE POSITION OF A FIREPLACE
The cult of Vesta was related with the veneration of a fireplace the focus of a home and a settlement. At the same time, the vestibules were consecrated to Vesta. The analysis of this contradiction, undertaken in the present article, helped to elucidate the main point of the structure of developed houses and temples as principal eccentric compositions. These complexes were not selfsufficient microcosms, but simply parts of larger space structures, which were united of collective fireplace in the centre. For better understanding, the be comparable with the branches a tree that grow from one whole trunk. So, the position of the temple of Vesta in centre of ancient Rome on the threshold of the Forum, Regia and the Emperor’s palace complexes seems significant. The same idea was already anticipated in the structures of other towns, for example, in Ancient Greece, where the goddess of the hearth has been likened to Hestia. The meaning of the names of separate parts of oldRussian towns became more understandable. They belonged to separate patriarchal families, and for them, the town center served as a common source, from which they all derived, like common fireplace.
Keywords: Rome, cult of Vesta, Hestia, temple of Vesta in Rome, oldRussian townplanning, fireplace
S. V. Tarkhanova
PSEUDO-IONIC CAPITALS IN CHURCHES AND SYNAGOGUES OF NORTHERN PALESTINE OF THE LATE ANTIQUE PERIOD: SUB-ROMAN OR SUB-BYZANTINE STYLE?
The article is devoted to Ionic capitals of Late Antique Palestine which is a comparatively uninvestigated subject. The analysis is based on the classical morphology of the Ionic order. It should be noted that it is changing in a considerable way under the influence of the new tendencies of the epoch. Capitals are divided into three main groups (simple Ionic, Golan and diagonal), as accepted by Israeli scholars (Tsafrir, Hachlili). Each group, however, is represented by a whole row of examples from the coeval ecclesiastical architecture as well as from the previous GrecoRoman and NearEastern traditions. This method has enabled us to make important stylistic observations and to determine interreligious tendencies, rooted in the ancient layers of local culture. For the first time the spatial analysis of Ionic capitals is represented: their location in the interior or exterior was directed by certain aims and due to the original decisions of Late Antique masters, a new sacral image of a synagogue or church has appeared.
Keywords: Synagogues, churches, Late Antiquity, Palestine, PseudoIonic capitals, classification: simple, Golan, diagonal
S. A. Klyuev
THE ASPECTS OF THE CONCEPTS OF THE VAULT AT THE ROCKHEWN CHURCHES OF TIGRAY (ETHIOPIA). PART 1: THE DOMES
At the heart of the rockhewn architecture of Tigray is the sculptural and decorative reinterpretation of structures of Ethiopian churches. Dome was one of the basic elements of the vault. This article is about analysis of imitation of wooden structures of the domes in rockhewn churches. It is likely that the symbolic meaning of the dome over time is being lost. The shapes have acquired a previously unknown features: different structural elements can be combined in a single composition. The transition of constructive elements to the decoration makes it possible for them to exist in an equal combination with ornamental elements. Thanks to these transformations in the rockhewn architecture of the region, a special language of vaults decorating has developed.
Keywords: rockhewn architecture, church architecture, vaults, imitation, dome, Ethiopia, Tigray
J. G. Klimenko
J.-J. GUERNE AND ARCHITECTURE OF RUSSIAN CLASSICISM. TO CREATIVE PORTRAIT OF FRENCH ARCHITECT
The interests of domestic scholars to the creative heritage of J.J. Guerne, French architect of the last third of the 18th century and the adherent of the Palladianism, are not limited to his projects for Russian nobility only. The analyses of his preserved educational projects and architectural practice in Paris is promotes for better understanding of stylistic preferences of the architect. However, it seems necessary to couch the nature of the perception of the ideas by Guerne, and the cause of their stigma when the models of French Classicism were translated into the other architectural schools. In particular, these questions arise while investigating the history of creation of a new residence in the estate ensemble of Archangelskoe near Moscow.
Keywords: french neoclassicism, architectural treatises, Moscow classicism, attribution
I. E. Pechionkin
UPPER TRADING ROWS IN MOSCOW AND THE ARCHITECTURE OF SHOPPING ARCADES IN 19TH CENTURY EUROPE
The article focuses on the study of the development of shopping arcades as of separate building type in 19th century Europe. The main purpose is to consider a wide cultural and architectural context of the spread of this typology from postNapoleonic Paris to other European cities. The author analyzes some special features of Upper Trading Rows in Moscow that became the largest one from similar series. Having compared this building with Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II, a significant example of urban architecture as well as engineer solutions of that time, it becomes clear that Upper Trading Rows are marked by not only regional peculiarity (e.g. in the plans or exterior design) but also by another way of technical thinking.
Keywords: 19th century architecture, eclecticism, Pomerantsev, Mengoni, Shukhov, shopping arcades, skylights
N. A. Konovalova
THE WORKS OF JOSIAH CONDER IN JAPAN AS THE FIRST EXAMPLES OF CROSS-CULTURAL INTERACTION AFTER THE OPENING OF THE COUNTRY
For more than two hundred years (from 1638 to 1868) Japan was in isolation. In 1868 the socalled Meiji restoration began, and the Japanese government opened the country’s borders. The process of Westernization covered all spheres of state and society. Architecture played a leading role in this process, becoming a catalyst for the Japanese to reach for the level of development in European countries. In order to better and faster learn new things, the Japanese began to invite consultants. One of the most valuable Japanese acquisitions from that period was the English architect, Josiah Conder. He constructed more than 50 buildings in Japan, which became a symbol of this era and a symbol of a new development for Japan. Conder did a lot to open Japanese culture to the UK. After studying painting, ikebana, landscape art, and the traditional dance of Japan, he published in Britain a few fundamental works on the culture of Japan, by which he encouraged better understanding of European and Japanese cultures by both societies.
Keywords: architecture of Japan, interaction of cultures, Meiji restoration, Josiah Conder
I. V. Belintseva
THE ARCHITECTURE OF SOPOT IN THE CONTEXT OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF BALTIC RESORT CITIES OF THE LATE 19TH — EARLY 20TH CENTURY
Places for coastal recreation in West and East Prussia (today within Poland and Kaliningrad Region of the Russian Federation), appeared simultaneously with other German seaside resorts in the early 19th century. The flourishing of resort life was in the late 19th and the early 20th century. The style and the typology of residential and public buildings of Sopot (until 1945 — Zoppot, Germany) are studied in the article. As in the other resorts of the East Prussia, they are varied in artistic decisions. It was a certain evolution from the picturesque historicism of the early Art Nouveau to the more stringent rational decisions in the 1910s. Also there were architectural solutions in the forms of the Norwegian “dragon style”, buildings in the “Swissstyle”, and borrowed English forms. Important parts of seaside resorts were multipurpose buildings of the Warm baths.
Keywords: Baltic Resorts, history, typology of resort conrtructions, stylistic of architecture, Sopot, Raushen, comparative study
Yu. D. Starostenko
TOWN PLANNING IN 1910: THE LONDON TOWN PLANNING CONFERENCE AND THE FIRST ALL-RUSSIAN CONGRESS OF EXPERTS AND LEADERS FOR URBAN BEAUTIFICATION IN ODESSA
In October 1910 the first International Town Planning Conference was held in London, which was attended by leading experts from around the world. This conference discussed a wide range of problems associated with the past, present and future of cities and their planning and construction. Meanwhile, in the same year, but a month earlier, in Odessa, a Congress was held whose goal was to draw attention to the problems of Russian cities and their beautification. A comparison of the published materials from these events gives us an idea of the level of town planning reached in 1910 in the West, and allows to better understand the realities of Russian theory and practice of urban beautification at the time.
Keywords: town planning, city planning, urban beautification, problems of development of cities, 1910
A. G. Vyazemtseva
MASTERPLAN OF ROME — 1931 AS A REFLECTION OF THE MAIN TRENDS OF THE URBANISM BETWEEN TWO WARS
The masterplan of Rome — 1931 was one of the first big city masterplans approved in Europe in the 20th century. Since the 19th century the urbanism tried to resolve the problem of the metropolis. The results of this research were used for the masterplans of European capitals at the very beginning of the 20th century. After the WWI, new ways of city planning were elaborated. The new masterplan of Rome — 1931 reflected not only the aspirations of the fascist propaganda, but also the new trends of the Italian and International urbanism of that time.
Keywords: Urbanplanning, fascism, totalitarian architecture, 1920s — 1930s, masterplan
G. A. Ptichnikova
SWEDISH “NEW EMPIRICISM”: TOWARDS SEARCHING OF NATIONAL ORIGINALITY IN EUROPEAN ARCHITECTURE OF THE 1940S
The article examines the features of the trend into the architecture of Sweden in the late 1930s and the 1940s, which has been conditional upon the search for national identity in architecture. “The new empiricism” tried to connect structuraltypological bases of the functionalism (considered as an “international style”) with the traditions of folk architecture and the beginning of national romanticism of the 20th century (“Svensk Grace” — “Swedish grace”). Examples of works of the representatives of this trend (Sven Markelius, Sven Bakstrem, Leif Reynius and others) are examines in the article as well.
Keywords: new empiricism, architecture, Sweden, tradition, national identity
A. Yu. Kazaryan
Review: Юлия Янчаркова. Историк искусства Николай Львович Окунев (1885–1949). Жизненный путь и научное наследие (HeidelbergPublikationenzurSlavistik, B. LiteraturwissenschaftlicheReihe, Bd. 37). Frankfurt am Main; Berlin; Bern; New York; Oxford; Wien: Peter Lang, 2012, 318 pp.
A. G. Vyazemtseva
Review: Splendor marmoris. I coloridelmarmo, tra Roma e l’Europa, da Paolo III a Napoleone III, a cura di GrégoireExtermann, Arianne Varela Braga. Roma: De Luca editorid’arte, 2016, 497 pp.