Ed. А. Yu. Kazaryan. Moscow; Saint Petersburg: Nestor-Historia Publ., 2017. 260 p.
Sh. M. Shukurov
PROPAEDEUTICS OF THE TEMPLE. TEMENOLOGICAL REFLECTION ON THE BOOK OF GENESIS
By “the propaedeutic of the Temple”, we mean the process of the birth of the temple consciousness and the actual idea of the Temple. We turn to the formation of the temple consciousness and the idea of the Temple in the period of the formation of ethno-religious features of the early biblical narrative. Temple propaedeutic is an important part of the temple consciousness, it establishes such an important set of rules and things necessary for the erection of the Temple. For this reason, it would be logical to create a set of themes and motives that would make up the necessary rules, semantic knots and concepts of the propaedeutic of the Temple. In the process of becoming the idea of the Temple, great importance is acquired by the patriarch Abraham - on his way to Canaan he builds altars. The construction of the altars is accompanied by a dynamic beginning, which together provides an example of the origin of the idea of the Temple and, accordingly, the formation of the temple consciousness. This process over time will encompass an increasing number of realities of the biblical narrative and apocrypha. The altars and sacrificial trees are a mnemonic mechanism for remembering the name and image of God for ourselves and our descendants.
The motive for "finding the city", which Ehud Benzvi draws attention to, is associated not only with the city, but also with the Temple. From Salim of Melchizedek to Jerusalem during the reign of the kings David and Solomon and up to our days, the city has always remained a City-Temple. First, in the Christian, and then in the Muslim era, Jerusalem greatly deepened its temple horizon of the city. The propaedeutic of the Temple provides for the precondition of pre-temple and architectural motifs, such as the altars that the patriarchs built, for example, the one built by King David, Jacob's ladder, the Moses tabernacle.
Keywords: propaedeutic of the Temple, Book of Genesis, patriarch Abraham, altar, Jerusalem
S. S. Vaneyan
ERIK FORSSMAN: POST-CLASSICAL ICONOLOGY OF ARCHITECTURE
The analysis of classical architectural and theoretical texts in the person of Eric Forssman clarifies the relationship between the text and the architectural monument: the analytics follow the practice, the practice follows the theory. The system of the order, understood as a means of emotional impact on the user, presupposes characterology as well — a kind of habit of architectonic activity: in the aspect of design, construction, and subsequent use (including the interpretation). Each of the orders designates its relation to the meaning. It is probably an allegorical attitude (iconography), or it reflected the expression of vital circumstances, — of the architect, the patron, and the interpreter (iconology). One means a document, the other is a monument. The contamination of the order’s thinking in the 18th century already gives examples of artificial resuscitation of the monumentality in the 20th century, understood as suggestive-colossal (all totalitarian regimes). The direct assimilation of the order system belongs in the direct sense of responsibility before the reviving and dying history.
Keywords: architecture, iconography, iconology, Panofsky, Forssmann, classical order, characterology, colossal, totalitarian
S. V. Tarkhanova
THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE LATE ANTIQUE SYNAGOGUES OF THE HOLY LAND (3rd–7th CENTURIES CE). PART I. HISTORIOGRAPHY OF THE PROBLEM
In the present article the existing principles of classification of Late Antique synagogues of the Holy Land are systematically analyzed. The initial evolutional system, that appeared in the very beginning of the 20th century and consisted of three and later four groups (“Early-Galilean”, “Golan”, “Byzantine”, “Transitional”), has been neglecting the step-by-step process, as a result of new discoveries, and new dating of some already known synagogues. New systems were proposed: at first, the same three groups but independent from the chronological sequence; then the other systems appeared sequentially: regional (E. Meyers), statistical (M. Chiat), just chronological ones, without any typology (D. Milson). In parallel, it was supposed to mark out additional groups of the ‘Golan’ synagogues with subgroups (Z. Ma’oz), but because their classification was based on decorative features, such a decision made architectural classification even more complicated. It is obvious that gradually a refusal of architectural principles took place; parallel to that was the mixing of architectural principles with the decorative, regional and statistical features. This led to the disappearance or blurring of the borders between the groups and absence of common classification.
Keywords: Palestine, Late Antique, architecture of synagogues, traditional classification, “Early-Galilean”, “Golan”, “Byzantine”, “Transitional” groups
E. S. Lavrentyeva
THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE CHURCH OF THE HOLY SEPULCHRE: STUDY METHODS IN 20TH CENTURY
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem is one of the most known monuments of world architecture and culture. The historiography devoted to the question of its architecture is extremely rich and various. But the complex of researches includes a set of articles and monographs which sometimes partially duplicate each other. The appeal to methods of studying of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre is submitted urgent. The question is very important as it comes down to the polemic which has arisen because of distinction in approaches of restoration works of the 19th and 20th centuries aimed at a reconstruction of original image of the medieval Church lost at the fire of 1808. The main stages of the monument studying during the 20th century are considered in this article.
Keywords: the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem, architectural restoration, reconstruction, L.-H. Vincent, K. Schmaltz, W. Harvey, V. Corbo
I. A. Bondarenko
ANCIENT ROMAN LEGION CAMP AS A UNIVERSAL MODEL OF THE TOWN
The breakdown of the plans of ancient Roman cities by military camp type, described by Polybius, differed not only in its orthogonality, but also in the establishment of a clear subordination of territorial zones. The crossing of the cardo and decumanus, noted by the tetrapyl, formed not the neutral midpoint, but the threshold of the main / main part of the city with the forum (originally the residence of the commander-in-chief) and the dwellings of the officers. The figure of the Tau-cross in the plan structured the zone of settlement of the rank-and-file members. An analogue of this zone can be considered a burg or a settlement of a medieval city. The main zone located above the crossbar - decumanus can be attributed to the castle or the Russian Kremlin (detinets). The same three-part structure with the Tau-cross in the middle continued its existence in a new meaning and in Christian basilicas and cross-domed temples. Significantly, the medieval maps of the Earth were structured in a similar way. All this testifies to the deep cosmological foundations of the planning tradition under consideration.
Keywords: Roman military camp, town-planning, classical architecture, universe model, tetrapylon
A. Yu. Kazaryan
METROPOLITAN SCHOOL OF ARMENIAN ARCHITECTURE OF THE BAGRATID PERIOD. A NEW SURWAY OF THE DEVELOPMENT
The examination of one of the most interesting phenomena of medieval architecture, Ani, or the metropolitan school of Armenian architecture, allows the possibility to propose a new chronology for its development. The material, part of which has been enriched by the author’s field studies, has been systematized on a new level. For the first time, the features and unique language of the metropolitan school are represented in the successive stages of the school’s development? Within the framework of the unified epoch of major flourishing of Ani architecture (970–1040’s), its three epochs are determined. Each of them lasted a quarter of a century, and they were connected with the persons of three kings of the reigning dynasty. The lead master of the first two epochs was Trdat, and we must consider him as the founder of the Ani school. For each epoch priority developments were formulated.
Keywords: Armenian architecture, metropolitan school of architecture, Ani, Bagratids, architect Trdat, periodization, interpretation of classical antiquity
R. G. Muradov
TOWARD THE QUESTION OF FORM REGARDING THE COVERING ON THE ARGAVAND MAUSOLEUM, ARMENIA
The tower tombs, localized mainly in Anatolia, Transcaucasia, Southern Caspian region and Khorasan, became widespread in the Islamic architecture of the 10th and the first half of the 14th centuries. In the Seljuq period the tower tomb received the final structural composition and turned into a stable architectural type. Among its later incarnations is a mausoleum in the village of Argavand near Yerevan (1413), built during the period of the existence of the Turkmen state of Kara-Koyunlu in this region and intended for the dynasty of emirs of the Saadly family, who ruled directly in the Ararat valley. The article summarizes the architectural survey of the monument in 2013 in connection with the preparation of the restoration project of its upper part. With good overall stability of the main stone body of the mausoleum, its brick top is severely ruined, and only a few rows of masonry have remained from the outer shell. Its lost form was the subject of discussion during the consideration of the project. In this author's opinion, a careful study of the original clearly indicates the tent structure. Also, the former existence of the dodecagonal pyramid (on the number of faces of the entire body of the tomb) corresponds to the morphology of the tower tombs of the Northern Iran and the Maraga-Nakhichevan circle of monuments.
Keywords: Islamic architecture, tower tombs, tents, Kara-Koynlu. Armenia, Argavand
P. V. Korotchikova
FORMATION OF THE CAPITAL OF INDIA DURING THE DELHI SULTANATE ERA: POLITICAL, IDEOLOGICAL, NATURAL FACTORS
The Modern capital of India preserves the memory of a number of urban settlements that claimed the title of the center. This tendency was most clearly manifested in the era of the Delhi Sultanate (1206–1526).
At the core of every strong ruler's desire to erect a new military-cultural object was a set of various reasons. The reverence for the past in conjunction with the demands of the time (Mongolian raids, the expansion of borders, lack of water) led to the closure of isolated structures in the "multicapital" complex, which has become a single urban space. The objective of this article is to unite the information, building a picture of the causes and consequences of this process. It is also important to determine whether all the so-called "capitals" can claim this resounding title, or part of them were built without the idea of substitution the previous administrative center.
Keywords: Delhi Sultanate, urban planning, capital, fortress, sufi khanqah
Е. I. Kononenko
ULU-CAMI OF AKSARAY: BETWEEN OTTOMANS AND KARAMANIDS
The Anatolian beylik of Karaman was the principal successor of the Rum Sultanate and the main political rival of the Ottomans. After the Angora Battle, the Great Mosque was built in Karamanid’ Aksaray. The building is not typical for the architecture of Central Anatolia.
On the one hand, the construction reproduces the inherited model of the "official Seljuk mosque" after a long break; on the other hand, the layout of the building proves to be close to the synchronous early Ottoman examples of ulu-cami — a special type of religious buildings which also performed memorial functions. This makes it necessary to expand the architectural context of the Aksaray mosque and pay attention to the political reasons for architectural citation.
Keywords: Ottoman architecture, ulu-cami, Karaman, Aksaray, political rhetoric, architectural citation
A. A. Lipatov, A. I. Saksa, A. M. Smirnov
ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ARCHITECTURAL PUZZLE OF THE OLD CATHERDRAL IN VYBORG. SOME RESULTS OF EXAMINATION IN 2013
In July-August 2013, the Vyborg archeological group at the Institute for History of Material Culture RAS carried out architectural and archaeological research inside the building of the Old Cathedral in Vyborg. The purpose of the archaeological investigations was to identify the remnants of the northern wall of the original volume of the Cathedral, remnants of the northern extension (sacristy), to identify the degree of preservation of the lower parts and substructions of the northern wall of the Cathedral in the area of the present northern portal.
Keywords: Vyborg, Vyborg district of Leningrad region, Old Cathedral, XV-XVIII сс., architectural archaeology, medieval architecture
M. Yu. Shevchenko
BUILDING REGULATION OF THE QING DYNASTY (17TH –20TH CENTURIES) AND ITS INTERPRETATION ILLUSTRATED BY THE CONFUCIUS TEMPLE WENMIAO IN KUNMING
In 1734 the Qing government issued a treatise called the “Gongcheng Zuofa”, which can be translated as “Building standards and regulations”. After that, builders were required to follow the treatise’s rules. However in distant regions of China, the influence of the treatise was not so crucial and many local constructive and decorative techniques connected to local culture, climate and size of available construction materials have come to the fore. The Confucius Temple Wenmiao in Kunming is examined in this article as one of the notable examples of southern Chinese architecture. The author personally participated in the reconstruction of this temple.
Keywords: The Confucius Temple, Kunming, Gongcheng Zuofa, reconstruction, Qing dynasty, China
I. V. Belintseva
RESORT ARCHITECTURE OF THE ISLAND OF RÜGEN (GERMANY) OF THE 19TH — THE FIRST HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURY: FROM ARISTOCRATIC RELAXATION TO MASS SCALE TOURISM
The first mineral waters spa resort Sagard appeared on the island of Rügen in 1794. In 1816 the Sea Resort Putbus was founded, which served as a vacation destination for the aristocracy. Until now, there are preserved classic mansions, a theater, and a bath in the form of a Greek peripter. According to K. Shinkel’s project, a large palace was built there (1827-1831). In 1860, the resort became the seaside village of Zassnitz. In the late XIX - early XX centuries. Simple fishermen’s houses have replaced elegant villas and hotels in the style of historicism and modernity. In contrast to the aristocratic Putbus, large merchants, bankers, industrialists, civil servants, and also rich foreigners settled here. On the Rügen peninsula of Mönchgut in 1882 there existed the resorts of Binz and Göhren, in 1884 - Lome, 1887 - Breguet, Zelin, Tissov, 1898 - Baabe, which were built on the model of English resorts. A huge kurhauz in Binz (1910), recreating the atmosphere of Brighton in England stands out especially. In the 1930s. The construction of the Prora resort began, intended for the rest and recreation of 20 thousand members of the society "Power through joy". The impressive scale of the idea was implemented only partially. The resorts at Rugen demonstrate the long journey of resorts building, from construction for the elite to erection of the resort "for the people", from classic palaces to mass dwellings by the sea.
Keywords: Rügen, Putbus, Prora, resorts, social order, architecture, style
MOTOR CAR’S GARAGE AS A NEW TYPE OF BUILDING IN THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY (AS PER EXAMPLE OF WESTERN EUROPE AND THE USA)
Using the material from Great Britain, Germany, France, Italy, the Czech Republic and the United States in the period up to 1914, we will try to trace the formation of a new architectural typology, the principal novelty of which was that its "addressee" was not actually a human, but a machine regarded as the inalienable attribute of man of the 20th century. At the same time, the specifics of the formation and development of the architecture of the automobile garage in each of the countries were quite substantial, turning an analysis of these features into a separate research problem in the light of the influence of local socio-cultural and economic factors.
Keywords: car, automobile infrastructure, motorism, garage, car garage, architecture of the XX century
L. G. Khrushkova
Review: Olof Brandt. La croce e il capitello. Le chiese paleocristiane e la monumentalità. Città del Vaticano: Pontificio Istituto di archeologia cristiana, 2016 (Sussidi allo studio delle antichità cristiane, 28). ISBN 978-88-85991-64-4. 148 p., 109 il.
J. G. Klimenko
Review: Версаль и Марли: Сады Людовика XIV. Альбомы, подаренные Петру I герцогом д’Антеном в 1717 году. Ред.-сост. Д. Гузевич, И. Гузевич, Б. Бенц. Париж; СПб.: Европейский дом, 2017. 496 с., илл. (Versailles et Marly: Les jardins de Louis XIV. Les Albums offerts par le duc d'Antin à Pierre Ier en 1717. Éditeurs: Dmitri Gouzévitch, Irina Gouzévitch, Bruno Bentz. Paris; Saint-Pétersbourg, 2017. 496 p., ill.).