Ed. А. Yu. Kazaryan. Moscow; Saint Petersburg: Nestor-Historia Publ., 2017. 264 p.
S. S. Vaneyan
THE STONE OF THE THEOPHANY — I: TOPIC AND TOPOLOGY OF SACRUM, TEXTUALITY AND TECTONIC
Under the architectonic influence, the topic of the prophane changes tectonically. More radical changes follow discursive-textual attempts to register the theophanic (numinous) which cannot be stopped in its destructive and restoring dynamics culminating in the Kerygma. From Jacob’s experience in Vefil to the pupils’ experience before the Empty Tomb there is a whole way of ‘architectonic narrative’ involving stones, laid and erected, Stone Tablets, broken and restored, testament and sacrifice, approved and rejected, earth and Heaven that rejected each other but eschatologically found themselves in the Flesh and Blood of the Lamb.
Keywords: architecture, tectonics, sacral, the stone of the theophany, Stone Tablets, temple, Tabernacle
V. V. Carpov
CHARLES BLANC AND JULIEN GUADET: RHETORIC AND HERMENEUTICS OF COMPOSITION, DRAWING AND COLOR
Part one. Charles Blanc. Grammar of the arts of drawing
The reading of two treatises from the second half of the 19th century — Charles Blanc’s Grammaire des arts du dessin. Architecture, sculpture, peinture (1867), and Julien Guadet’s Éléments et théorie de l'architecture (1901) — as the two fundamental theoretical accounts of the courses in the visual arts and architecture at the L’École des BeauxArts, and in formation of academic tradition in art and architecture as a whole, helps to determine a specific role for composition (Blanc, Guadet), drawing, and color (Blanc), both in education programs, and in the artistic and architectural practice of academism. Along with the evaluation of the obvious and generally accepted impact of these ideas and suppositions on further development of art and architecture, the tools inherent in them — rhetoric and hermeneutics — are brought out in their integrity and complementarity, which not only determine, often unwittingly, structural order and meaningful content of the two theories, but stand for the means of historical accounts and theoretical reasoning on art and architecture as well, and in many respects define instrumental techniques for artistic and architectural invention.
Keywords: academic tradition, artistic and architectural education, Blanc, color, composition, drawing, Guadet, hermeneutics, theory of the visual art and architecture
L. G. Khrushkova
THE TAURIC CHERSONESE: THE ARCHITECTURAL DÉCOR OF THE “1935 BASILICA”
Most of the early Byzantine basilicas of Chersonesus in the Crimea were excavated in the late 19th — early 20th centuries. The only exception was the so-called "1935 Basilica" investigated by the well-known archeologist Grigory D. Belov (1898–1979) in collaboration with Anatoly L. Yakobson (1906–1984). It is a complex of four structures that replaced one another. Firstly founded as a small synagogue, it was subsequently replaced by a basilica, which was rebuilt and expanded later in time. The latter, three-nave basilica with narthex and additional rooms from the south was named the "1935 Basilica". In the late Middle Ages, a chapel was built on the ruins of the mentioned structure. It underwent restorations in 1936, 1956 and partly in the 2000s. Today the basilica contains not only the capitals that were executed initially. The 1935–1936 excavations found a series of early Byzantine capitals of three types: 1) composite capitals with two rows of openwork leaves of thin toothed acanthus (so called "Theodosian" capitals). Seven examples of this type are known in Chersonesus, four of which are proven to originate from the basilica and dated the second half of the 5th century; 2) Corinthian capitals of the second half of the 5th century, three of which are of the common type with two rows of leaves of acanthus and one, the lost capital, belongs to the Corinthian "V-shaped" subtype (according Rudolf Kautzsch); 3) impost capitals, one of which has survived to our days and is analogous to the capitals of the church of St. John the Baptist (The Stoudion) in Constantinople (453).
Excavations also revealed small capitals from the altar barrier and a number of other marble elements. According to the existing opinion, marble decor corresponds with two construction periods of the monument, the dates of which are determined differently. I assume that most of the décor elements refer to the "1935 Basilica" in its final form. Reconstitution of the complete construction history of the complex requires further research.
Keywords: Byzantium, Early Christian architecture, basilica, Proconesian marble, capitals, columns, slabs
E. S. Lavrentyeva
GOLGOTHA IN THE CHURCH OF THE HOLY SEPULCHRE: QUESTIONS AND DISCUSSIONS
This article contains the most important questions and scholarly discussions that arose during the exploration of Golgotha and its architectural design. Being one of the central symbols of Christianity, today the place of the Crucifixion is situated inside the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. According to one version, in 4th century Mount Golgotha was included into the space of Basilica Martirium, which was located to the east of the Holy Sepulchre; in the 11th century it was included into the courtyard space; in the 12th century it was integrated into the main space of the Church of the Resurrection erected during Crusaders times. But there is another point of view. Some researchers believe there had been a small chapel on the top of Golgotha since the 5th century, and the mountain itself remained separated from the main construction until the architectural reorganization of the Church in the 12th century. The reason for the divergence of opinions was the use of different study methods of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
Keywords: Golgotha, Calvary, «the Place of a Skull», «the Middle of the World», Garden Tomb (Gordon’s Calvary), the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the architecture of Jerusalem
S. V. Klimenko
THE SUBORDINATION OF ARCHITECTURE OF POWER IN FRANCE: 2ND HALF OF THE 17TH — 1ST HALF OF THE 18TH CENTURY
In 1664 King Louis XIV established the position of superintendent, Bâtiments du Roi,, at which point was laid the beginning of the formation of a new model of the architectural and building activities in France. Consideration is being given to the existing in this service system of design, construction and control. It has been praised for its impact on the development of the planning structure of cities, in which the role of the administrative body, such as the police, has been significantly regulated. Formed in France by the beginning of the 18th century, institutions have created a model for management of architectural-construction processes, which impact on the practices of other countries, including Russia.
Keywords: Bâtiments du Roi, superintendent, the First architect of the Кing (Premier architecte du Roi), architectural authority, police Department, architecture and construction process
O. V. Linnikova
THE ARCHITECTONIC FEATURES OF LATTICEWORK IN THE RENAISSANCE RELIGIOUS BUILDINGS IN ANDALUSIA
In the Renaissance, the art of metalwork was flourishing in Spain. The 16th century was the real Renaissance for the latticework, which manifested itself in the works of many outstanding masters of latticework who created a great many of unique pieces. Among the most prominent works of Spanish Renaissance are the railings of the choir gallery, the main altar, the altar of the Virgin Birth in the Seville Cathedral, the railing of the altar in the Royal Chapel of Granada, the railing of the choir in Baeza Cathedral, the railing of the main altar in Virgen de la Cabeza church in Sierra Morena and many others. The artistic forging of Spanish Renaissance was never studied by Russian scholars. Despite the fact that a number of works by Spanish researchers were dedicated to the unique works of Spanish artistic forging, among them I. Dominguez Cubero, F. de Olaguer Feliú, L. Toussaint, T. Andres, A. Gallego de Miguel and others, this peculiar variety of art is still not appreciated by researchers and leaves room for studying and formulation of scientific problems. The article will show the role played by latticework in the organization of space and creating an artistic image of the interiors of Spanish cathedrals.
Keywords: Renaissance lattices, latticework in Spain, Renaissance art in Spain
A. Goulaki-Voutyra and G. Karadedos
CHURCH SCULPTURE IN THE АEGEAN (16TH–20TH CENTURIES)
The systematic study of marble carvings, especially of icon screens, in Greek Orthodox churches in the Aegean from the 16th to the 20th centuries resulted in identifying carving workshops and artists which led us to the origins of modern Greek sculpture in the Post-Byzantine period. The island of Chios seems to be connected with the origins of this art, while Tinos is the most important Aegean production center in the 19th century. The results of our research on this subject have been published in numerous articles, but most of all in three volumes, published in 1996, 2001 and 2011 (see references).
Keywords: Church sculpture, post-Byzantine architecture, icon screens, modern Greek sculpture, marble carving workshops, marble carvers, Aegean sculpture
A. V. Anisimov
ARCHITECTURE OF THEATER AT THE TURN OF THE 20TH CENTURY
The Palais Garnier, the Vienna Opera and the Theater in Budapest introduced the maximum possible amount of decorative elements to the eclectic architecture of the theater having an essentially Baroque structure. It seemed that the theatrical play did not attract any serious attention anymore. However, at the same time, since the end of the 19th century, successful attempts have been made to find a new structure of the demonstration space, new technology and scenography. There are fundamentally new solutions in such theaters as the Wagner Theater in Bayreuth, the search for new forms in the theatrical architecture of Van de Velde and Auguste Perret. Attempts are being made to create theater buildings on the basis of creative collaboration between the architect and the director (sometimes the composer). This direction determined the future development of one of the ways for a theatrical building. However, the baroque tiered theater, despite many shortcomings, proved to be quite tenacious and continued to develop and improve for a long time. There were the Coliseum Theater in London, the Teatro Colon in Buenos Aires and many others, loved by the audience and singers for good acoustics and the brilliance of the interiors.
Keywords: theatre architecture, Opéra Garnier, La Scala, Bayreuth Richard-Wagner-Festspielhaus, Teatro Colón, London Coliseum
N. A. Konovalova
THE 1910 WORLD FAIR: THE DIALOGUE OF JAPAN WITH THE WORLD
The Japanese-British exhibition of 1910 was a key moment in establishing a dialogue between Japan and the rest of the world. It made a significant impact on the formation of Japanese-British relations (political, cultural) and sparked the spread of fashion for Japanese art in Europe and Russia. Through the architecture of the pavilions and the expositions inside them, Japan had the overarching goal of showing itself as a country with rich cultural traditions, presenting the modernization of the country as a regular stage of development. The center of the Japanese exhibition was a three-story pagoda. Japanese pagodas are the most ancient high-rise structures of the country; they are the universally recognized symbol of beauty and harmony in architecture.
Keywords: world fairs, 1910 Japanese-British exhibition, exhibition architecture of Japan
A. V. Ivanov
REGULAR VERNACULAR — FREEDOM WITHIN THE GRID (THE HISTORIC CENTER OF GYUMRI IN THE 19TH — MIDDLE 20TH CENTURIES)
In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Gyumri (formerly known as Alexandropol, Leninakan) was the largest — within the borders of the Russian Empire — city of Armenia and its trade, economic and cultural center. The city saw social upheavals and natural disasters (rapid industrialization and changes in the patterns of urban life in the Soviet period, the devastating earthquakes of 1926 and 1988, the post-Soviet economic collapse), but its historic part, consisting of planned low-rise blocks built up by local masons — actors of the “middle” architectural culture — without any professional architects involved, is well preserved and continues to serve as a multifunctional city center. The article highlights the features of Gyumri’s historical vernacular architecture in the context of coexistence and interaction of the three environmental strata corresponding to the main periods of the city’s history (A-L-G). Analysis of several architectural and environmental cases specific to this city (regular vernacular: freedom within the grid; Dzori Mayla: dissolution of regularity; the Church of St. Savior (Amenaprkich): vernacular sanctuary; master Petros’s home: living vernacular of the 1950s) allows us to approach a more stereoscopic analysis of the concept of “vernacular city”, proposed earlier by the urbanist A. Vysokovsky. For the first time, the category “vernacular ensemble” is introduced to adequately describe the peculiarities of such cities’ environment; its fundamental differences from the more traditional notion of an “architectural ensemble” are also discussed.
Keywords: vernacular, subjects of urban environment, regular and unplanned, architectural culture, vernacular city, vernacular ensemble
E. V. Konysheva
THE PROBLEM OF “REGIONAL PLANNING” AT THE INTERNATIONAL TOWN PLANNING CONGRESSES IN 1900–1930S
In the early 20th century, a new trend has emerged in the global town-planning process — the internationalization of town-planning searches. Regular international congresses have become the platform for discussions on Western urban development. They played a key role in consolidating the urban planners' community, in formulating and debating over current urban problems, in organizing a systematic international exchange of town-planning ideas and practical innovations. This article analyzes the formulation and discussion of one of the main problems of Western urban development in the first third of the 20th century — regulation and organizing of urban development and creation of agglomeration systems.
Keywords: urban planning, 1900–1930s, international congresses, monocentric and polycentric agglomeration
I. V. Belintseva
ARCHITECTURE OF THE BALTIC RESORT NEUKURHEN (TODAY’S PIONERSKY SETTLEMENT IN KALININGRAD REGION): THE ZIGZAGS OF HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT
The fishing village of Neukurhen in East Prussia was declared a resort in 1837. By 1912, the settlement had been considered the third most important recreational place on the Baltic Sea. J. Karl, who loved the resort, described it in his literary works. In 1837, businessman K. Douglas built four guest houses, which, as well as the construction of the railway in the 1900's, made the city a popular vacation place. The building of the Kurhaus in the Art Nouveau style gave an attractive appearance to the fashionable resort (now it is a children sanatorium). In the first half of the 20th century, Neukurhen became a practical and scientific fishing center of the coast of Samland. In the early 1920's, here was built an exemplary fishermen village designed by the architect K. Frick. In the interwar period, an airfield and a standardized settlement for pilots were constructed. In the post-war period, the settlement remained almost unchanged, but the third millennium saw the construction of a presidential residence, new quarters of the "Prussian village" and other structures that significantly influenced the development of Pionersky.
Keywords: architecture, history, Baltic resort, model settlement, 19th–20th centuries
G. A. Ptichnikova
STOCKHOLMS STADSHUSET: TOWN-PLANNING TRADITIONS AND “GENIUS LOCI”
The article aims to investigate one of the best works of the National Romanticism style in Sweden in the 20th century — the Stockholm City Hall. For that purpose the research examines two important principles: continuity of urban traditions and search for the spirit of a place, "Genius loci." Consequently the present study of Swedish National Romanticism is built on the work of one of the leading Swedish architects Ragnar Ostberg.
Keywords: architecture, Stockholm City Hall, National Romanticism, Ragnar Ostberg
V. Sh. Hairova
THE PROBLEM OF DEMONSTRATION OF CREATIVE HERITAGE: CH. R. MACKINTOSH'S UNREALIZED PROJECTS
The recent years have been marked with the increased interest to the work of Charles Rennie Mackintosh. Researchers also pay their attention to the master's unrealized projects, which he executed while taking part in different competitions, that he did not win. In 1996 The House for an Art Lover was built based on 14 surviving sketches from «Meisterder Innenkunst» design portfolio. Around that time the replica of The Artist's Cottage was built. All the other unrealized in their time projects were recreated by present-day architects as models. Mackintosh's realized ideas however indicate their significance for the further investigation of the Art Nouveau style in Europe.
Keywords: Mackintosh, unrealized projects, model, exhibition, London